Hundreds of facts about food from famous chef
• hundreds of facts about food from famous chef
1. Meat - a muscle. All major types of muscle tissue: smooth, cardiac and skeletal - are eaten. The latter - the source of what is called meat. The rest - the offal. It is believed that the higher from the ground part of the animal body, the softer and more tender meat dish. But there are exceptions.
2. Sharp knife - the knife safe. It is impossible not to be circumcised, working in the kitchen. But rather dull knife slips off the crust or vein twitches in his hand, and will cause more ragged and painful wound. knife edge should be sharp and free of nicks, no wonder it takes Kashrut.
3. Get used to horseradish and mustard can not. The island will be forever. To tears. Burning mustard, wasabi and horseradish has a different nature than in the case of Chile. The reason - the isothiocyanates resulting from the destruction of the cells. In addition to the impact on heat receptors they have tear effect.
4. When cooking pasta is no need to add oil into the water. When the pasta in boiling water fall, their outer layer becomes sticky due to gelatinization of starch. Oil on the water surface is not prevented. Surest way - a few times to mix the first 2-3 minutes of cooking.
5. Pasta not slipnetsya if its pre-soaked in cold water. Minimum - until the water boils. During this time the starch is washed away from the surface. Maximum - two hours. Instead of water, you can use broth or sauce. Pasta cooked for 3 minutes and would be ideal.
6. Pair the meat sold in the market. Pair it remains no longer than 3-4 hours after slaughter. Next comes the inevitable stiffness, and the meat becomes tough and tasteless. Beef is suitable for food only a day later. It is better if between slaughter and butchering took place four days.
7. Extract the meat - a traditional way to soften it and to enhance the taste. Posting a carcass in the cellar, and now in the refrigerator, butcher controls enzymatic processes in muscle and cuts on the surface. Often the meat is kept in a vacuum, but is a weaker effect on the taste. 8. soften the meat can be, having beaten him with a hammer. A more cunning - with the help of pineapple, papaya, kiwi or fig leaves. These plants contain enzymes that break down proteins, including veins. You can endure the meat in a fruit puree or buy purified enzymes. The main thing - do not overdo it.
9. Jelly with fresh pineapple can not be obtained. Gelatin - protein, hydrolyzed collagen, the basis of connective tissue. Bromelin, an enzyme contained in the pineapple, cleaves proteins. Ruin and jelly. Exit - pineapple cook that will destroy the enzyme itself. Or take canned.
10. "sealed" Meat is useless. The idea to burn the meat, to close the pores and keep the crust juicy, does not maintain the practice. Abrupt heating causes muscle fibers to contract and squeeze out of the moisture like a sponge. Best to bake the meat and then fry.
11. marbled meat not necessarily the most delicious. The meat is important, not fat, and the flavor and texture. They determine the animal's diet and living conditions. Slaughter without stress and skillful cutting - also critical stage. Plus extract of meat in the refrigerator to soften and flavor concentration.
12. The finished meat should be cut across the grain. It was found that the product is properly prepared in 4, 5 times softer than if it was cut along. The exception, perhaps, one: ham and other dried ham on the bone is hardly possible to saw neatly across. And it makes no sense.
13. Minced impossible to crank back. Joke, but is 100% true. Outside of a living organism splicing of muscle fibers back into the whole muscle is impossible. Food technologists, to collect from a small off-grade steak muscle using transglutaminase, an enzyme crosslinking proteins in nature.
14. Meat red due myoglobin protein. When heated Myoglobin breaks down - and the meat becomes gray. Sausage and ham are pink: they add color lock sodium nitrite, and myoglobin does not lose color when heated.
15. Sodium nitrite - a preservative, and this is his main role. He saves from the danger of poisoning with botulinum toxin. In large quantities of hazardous substances, but should not be afraid: it almost does not remain in the product. In the sausage sodium nitrite behind spinach, tomato, or celery. 16. Meat and fish tartare and sushi is better to use frozen. First, it allows you to get rid of possible parasites, ie to freeze the product before you eat it raw, definitely need. Secondly, frostbitten meat easier to cut perfect slices.
17. The guts are not only edible, but also tasty. Annually in the world sells gut worth almost three billion dollars. Total majority - as a shell for sausages. The rest - the local specialties, such as kokorech. It lamb intestines grilled, stunning Turkish delicacies.
18. From the store eggs never hatch chicks. Hens lay them without the participation of the rooster, is a manifestation of the natural cycle. Layers are always separated from the cocks, if there is no breeding objectives. The taste of these eggs are almost indistinguishable from a freshly fertilized.
19. Every day in the world eat millions of embryonated eggs. Hens fertilized and incubated eggs. Chicken and duck eggs with embryo age from 14 to 19 days - a delicacy in Southeast Asia, known as balut. They are cooked in the shell and eaten with soy sauce and ginger.
20. The famous Chinese "century-old eggs" are usually about three months. Eggs with brown and black transparent yolk protein have a specific odor of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, but very tasty. To achieve this, the eggs stand in the lime from three weeks to three months.
21. "One egg contains as much fat as 1/2 pound of meat," - reads the slogan in the dining room of the second house Starsobesa. Convincing, but not true. The egg yolk contains 4-6 grams of fat. On average, the beef has a fat content of 15%. That is half a pound - 34 grams. Deceit there.
22. The perfect soft-boiled eggs. Mark egg room temperature, an awl to pierce a hole in the blunt end and cooking in a steamer under cover 7 minutes. Put into ice water, and a spoon to break the shell to clean under running water. To cook hard-boiled, cook the same, but 12-13 minutes. 23. Porcupine edible, like almost all edible rodents. However, so far no one had not occurred to grow them for meat. But "out of porcupine meatballs", porcupine meatballs, very well known in America. We call them "hedgehogs", beef meatballs with rice.
24. There is nothing better goose cracklings. Well, where are you getting against them with bacon from pork fat! Goose cracklings, of course, should be fried until then, until they become golden. Take the goose fat, remove the skin from the fat and fry.
25. Meat and chicken wash useless and harmful. Meat tissue swells from moisture, and it prevents the formation delicious crust on the grill. Dirty meat is better simply not to buy. A chicken when washing a half meters scatter around sprays that may contain dangerous bacteria.
26. Mushrooms better not to wash. mushroom body often absorbs water, and if they are to be fried, it can spoil the dish. It is better to clean the knife and stiff brush to remove particles and allow to dry for half an hour in the air, then fry small portions on a hot skillet.
27. Bananas wash needed. They came from far away.
28. Green salad - a frequent source of intestinal infections. Crunch, juicy and bright color is deceptive: lettuce growing on a ridge, they enters the earth, and often fertilizer - pathogens. Do not forget to wash your salad!
29. The milk protein, casein, is a little different. The most famous version called A1 and A2. New Zealanders selling milk casein A2 type only the more beneficial to health. Authorities around the world have not found evidence to this effect. A2 Milk - part of the industry of fear.
30. Conversely, skimmed milk, is recommended for cattle food for speed dialing mass. Because after separating cream in milk is a big part of the protein and lactose. At the same time milk is often positioned as a "lightweight" and "useful." This is not true. There's not enough fat!
31. A good goat's milk should not smell "goat". The decisive factor - hygiene. A healthy goat, clean bedding, free grazing, carefully washed the udder - and get milk gentle, odorless and tasteless. So, and cheese, and butter. By the way, bad goat butter spread on bread. 32. This goat cheese tingling tongue. It is made using a secret yagnyachego abomasum and powder special glands, which are located in the base language. The enzyme lipase releases free fatty acids from milk fat, which creates a sharp taste.
33. Aged cheese has a rich taste and aroma. And he crunches on the teeth. When cut in a cheese mass visible solid white dots and loose pockets sized pearl. This concentrates tyrosine and leucine amino acids resulting from the decay of casein cheese during ripening.
34 Tasty sandwich with melted cheese requires skill. To toast to put the filling and cover with cheese. Cheese to spare. Turn on the hot cheese teflon pan and pressed down. Cheese melts immediately, it will be a tasty crust. Done. Remove the shoulder blade on the plate.
35. Bird's milk there. Unlike cow, bird - no multicomponent emulsion and curdled substance, which is released in the crop pigeons flamingo and penguins for feeding chicks. As well as the "Bird's milk" - Polish candy with souffle and famous Soviet cake.
36. Black garlic - no variety, and the method of preparation. If you sustain a head of garlic at a temperature of 55ºC for about a month, segments appear black, sweet and sour taste and lose their pungency. Likewise, you can modify the chili peppers, the arrows of garlic, leeks, bananas and corn.
37. Apples can and must be prepared like vegetables. For example, it is possible to fry thin slices in a frying pan with butter, diced celery, carrot flakes and grain mustard. At the end do not forget to sprinkle pink and black pepper, finely chopped parsley and green onions.
38. unleavened bread does not happen, it is cheating. It is understood that the test does not use pure yeast, but any commercial ferment, or leaven spontaneous fermentation, "wild". And there, and there is, as a part of various microorganisms, including lactobacilli and yeast necessary. 39. The unleavened bread is. For example, the matzah. Or salt risen bread, the recipe American pioneers. The dough is kneaded with milk and keep warm. Dangerous bacteria Clostridium perfringens, the causative agent of gas gangrene, raises a loaf. After baking, the bread is not contagious.
40. The fastest bread is baked for 1 minute, and the longest - day. Thin dough for baked Lavash matzo or a minute or two on a hot pan or a hot oven. A pumpernickel - bread, consisting of half-grains and grits, baked in the cooling furnace and at least 24 hours.
41. The whole-wheat flour requires special treatment. Among other features, it contains oil, which is in the air in the heat very rapidly oxidised and acquires a bitter taste, which communicates throughout baking. If you bake a little flour store frozen. By the way, the yeast too.
42. The ink of cuttlefish - exotic bread improver. The ink composition contains mucous substances - emulsifiers. Bread, rolls, even waffles with ink becomes soft, supple, pleasant to the taste and much blacker. Plus cuttlefish ink gives the bread a gentle marine note.
43. semolina and cocoa can be easily prepared without lumps. They are formed when a portion of starchy powder falls into the hot liquid. Surface scald, the paste is formed which prevents wetting lump. The solution: simply pour them into the unheated fluid.
44. Semolina tastier when it is not made from semolina. Semolina - Intermediate flour production, which is not suitable for baking bread. A most delicious and creamy porridge is obtained from the noble semolina - brushed flour from durum wheat.
45. Spelled and spelled - is different. Everlasting confusion. Spelled - a large variety of soft wheat. It is often called emmer, deceiving themselves and consumers. Spelled - the sister of durum wheat. Her small delicate grain, which is difficult to thresh. Pushkin hero Balda ate it up. 46. Couscous - a pasta. Despite the fact that it looks like the rump, couscous obtained from durum wheat flour rocks. Flour moistened with a little water and shake up the crumbs of education. You do not have to cook couscous. Simply steamed with hot water and wait.
47. Soak grains and can be right. the starch grains swell and grits cook more quickly. If you soak the rice Arborio 3 hours, drain the water, you can cook from it risotto literally 7-8 minutes. Basmati longer be extended for a couple, and barley get a soft and fragrant.
48. "Baba" in the title of "Baba", baba au rhum, means the same as in Russian. The recipe and the name are the Ukrainian-Polish roots. At the beginning of the XVIII century, this sdobny yeast cake, sometimes with raisins and candied fruit, brought to Europe, former Polish king Stanislaw Leszczynski.
49. Vanilla - the only genus of orchids, which gives edible fruit. In other orchids can be Edible Flowers. Rhizomes some fried like potatoes or even make them ice cream.
50. vanilla production - unsafe work. Green fruit through several stages: blanching, fermentation, drying. The pods are sometimes affected mites, particles that fall on the skin, in the respiratory system of workers and cause painful symptoms, which are called "vanilizm".
51. From all the onions cry. Hang on the ears onion peel useless, it will only breathing apparatus. The thing is that when cut in the bulb is released aliinaza enzyme, which causes the formation of tear gas.
52 can and must get used to the spicy taste of red and black pepper. Capsaicin and piperine activated receptor TRPV1, which signals the brain about pain and burns. With the constant use of the acute reaction is weakened. And then it is possible to discern the nuances of taste and aroma of peppers.
53. Birds do not feel the sharpness of chili peppers. This can be used for the benefit of cooking. For example, the chef Dan Barber in his restaurant-estate Blue Hill at Stone Barns feeding chickens capsicum chili and receives their eggs red yolk. Yolk has a distinct edge. 54. Pink Pepper - Pepper not only look similar. This kind of dried fruit bush schinus, relative cashew, mango and pistachio. In large quantities can be toxic. Allspice - also pepper and fruit tree Pimenta, but the scent vaguely reminds Piper Nigrum.
55. Sichuan pepper - do not pepper and peel zanthoxylum fruit, citrus relative. Unlike chili numbs. Components "pepper not" cheat tactile receptors illusion causing high frequency vibration. This leads to a loss of sensitivity of the oral mucosa.
56. To make maple syrup, maple sap, collected during the spring sap flow, slowly evaporated forty times. Long and expensive, so the syrup often mimic. Such a syrup can also be obtained from birch sap, but it will have to boil down a hundred times.
57. If the hand is not dark sugar, you can make a cool caramel sugar alone. It is necessary to bake the sugar in a thick-walled pot for 3-4 hours, shaking every 20 minutes. Then get and give to cool completely, stirring every 10 minutes. Done!
58 Candied fruits - delicious candied fruit, or, in other words, dry jam. Classic candied fruit, made from citrus albedo, likely got its name from the Latin word sucidus - "juicy". Initially, canned fruits, and stored in a flavored syrup.
59. If the mash lemon, from it you can squeeze more juice than usual. If lemon to warm up in the microwave, you get even more. Still it is possible to squeeze rub sandpaper sugar juice to get much more aromatic. Crystals scratch sandpaper and destroy the capsules with essential oil.
60. foie gras does not necessarily mean cruelty to birds. The most delicious samples of foie gras produced by geese and ducks free-range. Foie gras is even wild geese that eat a lot before the flight to the south during the short season in northern regions.
61. small portions have tastier. We are losing interest in the monotonous food, and even within a single afternoon, and new dishes still cause famine. This is called sensory-specific saturation. Small portions allow you to save your appetite during long tasting. 62. One discerns five basic tastes, and at least another 6 extra. Usually talking about a sweet, sour, bitter and salty taste. It becomes familiar so-called edible flavor, umami. And also - pungent, astringent, fat, soap, ferrous and mint. Well, in pursuit - "ma", numbness.
63. E621, glutamate, is not dangerous. Vegetables, cereals and meat naturally contain a noticeable amount of this substance that is indistinguishable from that obtained in the industry. From tomatoes to soy sauce. If afraid of glutamate, it is necessary to be consistent and to exclude from the diet of most of the food.
64. Sweet need to add salt. Sweet taste is dominant in mixtures even when added to the syrup salt, acid or bitter. 0, 3% of salt in the custard does not change the taste of the dessert, but will make it richer. Acidity in the merengue will add an extra dimension, but does not affect the overall balance.
65. They say a good restaurant uses more butter. It's true. It makes food taste better.
66. Good butter has a strong odor. Due substances lactones food, fried in butter, so delicious smells. fragrance oil also enriches skatole. That they smell manure, but its oil is so small that it becomes a delicious smell and not repulsive.
67. svinushki suitable for dyeing wool. While svinushki thin mushroom is poisonous and svinushki thick - conditionally edible from them can still be good. Blue pigment thelephoric acid, able to dye hair in a nice blue-gray shade.
68. Resta, potato pancakes Swiss Germans - a symbol of cultural and ethnic differences between the regions of the country. Imaginary "Resto-crack", Röstigraben, divides Switzerland for German-speaking part of the greater eastern and smaller francophone in the West, where not eat rösti.
69. Hands have tastier. Cutlery create a distance between us and the food. Fingers feel the temperature and texture nuances. Exclusion impoverishes our tactile sensations from food, so use your fingers. But keep the elbow high, otherwise it will drain the juices drip on the arm and knees. 70. Ginger beer - beer is not and does not contain alcohol. One hundred years ago, he, as well as root beer produced by fermentation of plant extracts. Later alcohol from drinks had to be removed and some components were harmful. Now it's just a flavored soda.
71. Hamburger 150 years older than the author of the facts of Ivan Shishkin. Steak of minced meat Hamburg-filed in a New York restaurant Delmonico already in 1834. For a long time it belonged to the haute cuisine, but then America began to eat on the go. In 1904 came the first burger in a bun.
72. Shawarma - German dish. In its present form it appeared in Berlin. In the early seventies two Turkish workers grill installed independently from each other vertically, fried meat and placed it in a soft cake. They created an industry that feeds millions of people.
73. Caffeine is bitter. But the reason for the bitterness in the cup of coffee is not caffeine, its contribution to the bitterness does not exceed 15%. The main culprits - pyrolysis products of chlorogenic acid, and at dark roasting and Maillard reaction products. The level of bitterness in the beverage also affects brewing equipment.
74. Brown Sugar cane is not necessary. Brown sugar - just enough purified from molasses. Brown is and beet and palm, and any sugar produced by evaporation of vegetable juice. Refined cane sugar completely white.
75. Sardelle German "anchovy". In many languages the name of the fish from the actual sardines to anchovies have root sarda. But thick sausages are not related to fish any form or composition. There is a version that they were supposed to bring to the table grease watered, like canned fish.
76. The food gives a person energy. Or picks. Typically, food becomes a building material and a source of energy for the body, but, for example, raw meat provides less energy for the body than is spent on the process of digestion.
77. A national mayonnaise sauce composed mainly of butter and egg yolks. His curse, saying that "fat and cholesterol." Thus on the one egg yolk can be up to 30 liters sauce or even replace egg yolk in powdered flax seeds or chick pea broth. Uses no more, but interesting. 78. Crustaceans varied. But boiled crawfish all red. Astaxanthin, red pigment in the shell of a living cancer and is associated has a color ranging from gray to blue-green. he is thermally stable, and the connection breaks down during cooking. And there is only red.
79. Goose barnacle - barnacles, delicious and amazing seafood, shellfish settled. A Barnacle goose - brant. In ancient times believed that they developed from the legs of crustaceans, covered with armor, like a goose's head, hence the name.
80. Protein vzobyutsya faster and higher, if at the beginning add a pinch of tartaric or citric acid. Meringue obtain uniform and whiter. In this case, the foam will last longer if the acid is not added. A salt, if there is in the recipe should be added at the end of the whipping.
81. Protein vzobyutsya worse or does not vzobyutsya if the tank gets fat. But if you add the water, there will be nothing to worry about. Egg protein - 10% of protein and 90% water. Meringue vzobetsya even though pour an equal amount of water. Just will not be very stable.
82. Bananas ripen themselves and help others. Bananas, pears, apples, tomatoes, apricots, melons and many others called climacteric fruit. They emit ethylene gas, plant hormone that causes ripening. Citrus, grapes and strawberries, on the contrary, "on the shelf" does not ripen.
83. The blackened bananas do not look very appetizing, but they are the sweetest. If you carefully remove the pulp from the peel, you can eat them with a spoon like pudding or use for baking. In perespevshih bananas is five times more low molecular weight sugars and less starch than yellow.
84. All apple "Granny Smith" - clones of one tree. The only tree of this variety grown in Australia as a result of accidental pollination in 1868. Apples high commodity different properties. It failed to reproduce the mutation. "Granny Smith" only multiply vegetatively. 85. Avocados - berry. Botanically so. Another fact to the uncertainty around the fetus. And fruits and vegetables, ripe avocado delicious raw, it can fry in a pan, and can be transformed into ice cream. fragrant leaves of the tree and used as a substitute for bay leaf.
86. Artichokes - a sort of cultivated plants, thistle and sunflower family. We eat artichoke leaves, young stems and, of course, fleshy receptacle. Leaves and stems are also edible thistles, have an interesting bitterness and sunflower buds taste is not worse than that of an artichoke.
87. Cauliflower correct to call the flower. After all, its head - is an escape from the rudiments of flowers. If cauliflower is not cut off, the buds bloom. Flowers cauliflower is very tasty and decorative. By the way, cauliflower can be white, green, purple and yellow.
88. Weeds are tasty and edible. They eat little out of ignorance and because weeds grip on the ground and protected by thorns. Yields them too low. Be sure to try the young goutweed, nettle, dandelion, burdock root and wheat grass, oxalis, cuff, tarragon and lungwort.
89. Potatoes - the food of millions. But La Bonnotte tubers of varieties with the French island of Noirmoutier are like caviar. They are harvested by hand, and the price goes up to $ 700. Algae in soil and sea air give La Bonnotte delicate taste. La Bonnotte from another area worth less than $ 5.
90. Tomatoes are prized for their sweet taste and characteristic smell. Taste the sauce or soup will be brighter and "tomato", if in the last 10 minutes of cooking add a handful of tomato leaves, and then remove.
91. It is alleged that in the garden of the emperor Diocletian, pensioner grew cabbage and beets. Cabbage heads of cabbage, however, was unknown to the Romans, so that it looked more like leafy greens. But the soup could have been invented in the third century.
92. Palm oil - harmless and delicious. The crude oil was a beautiful orange-red color, it is interesting to cook meat and vegetables, and popcorn. Palm oil is not spoiled for a long time, and its solid fraction - a healthy alternative to hydrogenated fats for the production of margarine. 93. Oysters can be eaten all year round. Taste shellfish varies from season to season, but the myth that they are edible only in months, the title of which is P, can not stand the practice. Today refrigerators allow you to save the freshness and also during the warmer months.
94. In the UK, America and some places in France, oyster bake, fry and add to the soup. Not because there is not like raw oysters, but because they are very accessible. Fresh oysters in America are often very large, and they are served with ketchup and horseradish.
95. Scallops - delicious shellfish - familiar to us white. Even experienced cooks throw muscles pink. In fact, the pink means female scallop entered in the breeding season. The taste does not affect the color.
96. The word "dumplings" has Turkic roots. The similarity with the word "cooking" accident. Historians agree that this dish has spread from China and has been borrowed by the Slavs from the Turks, where it is known under the name dyush Vara. Hence the name. Origin of name Dumpling otherwise.
97. Julien, for example, mushroom - unhappy meal without their own names. In Russian it is called by the process of cutting. Julien - small strips or half rings. And in France a similar dish called on dishes in which it is cooked, champignon en cocotte.
98. Food Kholodova burn - not frostbite, and the result is the sublimation of water from the solid phase, evaporation ice. The surface of the frozen product is literally dries up, and it comes into disrepair. When frozen food is important to be packed tightly and finite shelf life of frozen products.
99. CIA - not just the CIA. This Culinary Institute of America. The famous culinary college in New York, with offices in California, Texas and Singapore, which offers vocational education for future chefs. Among the graduates - Grant acacia, Anthony Bourdain, Roy Choi.
100. - You chicken or fish? Perennial question on the plane in the distribution of food on board. And there are airline restaurant dish chicken, "Samoletnaya chicken" - fried breast with tenderloins and shoulder bone. Just cut up the chicken for the famous chicken Kiev.