The most dangerous insects on the planet
Millions of species of insects that live on earth today, play a crucial role in the ecosystem of our planet. Although most of them are safe, some may deliver a person a lot of trouble, and some can be toxic and even deadly. From the usual ants and flies to more exotic beetles - we offer you a list of the 25 most dangerous insect in the world.
Termites are not a direct threat to humans, play an important role for the environment, in fact, in some cultures, they even eat. But at the same time, kids termites can cause enormous damage to the infrastructure, sometimes making the house completely uninhabitable.
Lice - wingless parasites that feed on skin cells, blood and other secretions of the human body. Most often, these insects are carriers of people. In nature, there are about fifteen different species of lice. Like termites, lice do not always have a direct danger to human health, but they can be carriers of disease.
3. Ixodes scapularis
Each year, Ixodes scapularis infects thousands of Lyme disease that begins with a rash around the bite that resembles the bull's eye. Early symptoms of the disease include headache and fever. With the further development of the disease the victim begins to suffer from the problems with the cardiovascular system. Few people die from these bites, but the effects may continue for many years after the unpleasant encounter with ticks.
4. The army ant
The first creation in our list, which is dangerous in the literal sense of the word - army ants, known for their predatory aggression. Unlike other species of ants, wandering not build their own permanent nests. Instead, they create colonies, which migrate from one place to another. These predators are constantly moving throughout the day, hunting insects and small vertebrates. Virtually all combined colony can kill in one day more than half a million insects and small animals.
5. The Wasp
Most wasps does not bear a special direct danger, but some varieties, such as the German wasp in North America, reach large sizes and can be incredibly aggressive. If they sense danger or notice an invasion of its territory, it can sting repeatedly and very painful. They will mark their aggressors, and in some cases to pursue them.
6. Black Widow
Although the sting of the female black widow spider can be very dangerous to humans because of the neurotoxins produced by the bite, if the time to provide the necessary medical care, the consequences will be limited only by the bite of some pain. Unfortunately, a few cases of death from the bite of the black widow is still met.
7. hairy caterpillar moths yoke
Moth caterpillar-coquette Megalopyge opercularis look cute and fluffy, but do not be fooled by their cartoon-like appearance: they are extremely poisonous.
Usually people believe that burning the hairs themselves are, but in reality the poison is released through the spikes hidden in the "Wool". Spikes are extremely brittle and remain in the skin after contact. The poison causes a burning sensation around the affected area, headache, dizziness, vomiting, sharp pains in the stomach, lymph nodes, and sometimes stop breathing.
Cockroach is known as a carrier of many diseases that are dangerous to humans. The main danger of living with cockroaches is that they climb into the toilets, garbage cans and other places where bacteria, as a consequence - are their carriers. Cockroaches can cause a variety of diseases from worms and dysentery to tuberculosis and typhoid. Cockroaches can carry fungi, unicellular organisms, bacteria and viruses. And fun fact - they can live for months without food or water.
9. The parasitic worms
Parasitic worms - the type of eukaryotic parasite. Most parasitic worms are known to live in the digestive tract of humans and cause insomnia, vomiting, nausea and other health problems.
A person does not feel the bite itself directly, as in the saliva bug included anesthetic. If the bug is the first time could not get close to the blood capillaries, it can bite a person several times. On the site of the bite bug begins to itch and blister may appear. Occasionally people are faced with very severe allergic reaction to a bug bite. Fortunately, 70 percent of people do not feel virtually no consequences from them.
The bugs are household insects and do not belong to the group of transmitters of infectious diseases, but in the organism they can retain long pathogens transmitting infection via blood, such as hepatitis B can also be stored pathogens plague, tularemia, Q-fever. The greatest harm to the people they bring their bites, robbing human normal rest and sleep, which could then adversely affect the morale and efficiency of health.
11. The human oestrus
We have the human gadfly larvae, which can transmit life-threatening parasites to people. Also known as torsalo, human botflies typically transmitted by mosquitoes. When the mosquito larva carrying human oestrus, lands on the skin, the larva enters the body carrier. After a few days it grows under the skin and can cause serious infection if not immediately treat the bite.
Centipede (Scutigera coleoptrata) - this insect, which is also called flycatcher, allegedly appeared in the Mediterranean. Although other sources speak of Mexico. Centipede has become very common all over the world. Although the species of insects and unattractive, they generally perform useful work as eat other pests and even spiders. However, such an argument does not help when entomofobii (fear of insects). Usually, people are killing them because of an unpleasant appearance, although in some southern countries centipede even protected. Flycatcher - a predator, they inject poison the victim and then kill her. flycatchers often settle in apartments, not causing harm to the food or furniture. They love moisture, centipedes often found in basements, under the bath, in the toilets. Living muholovki from 3 to 7 years, newborns have only 4 pairs of legs, increasing their one with each molt.
Usually the bite of the insect do not be anxious for a person, although it can be compared with a small bee sting. For some, it may even be painful, but usually it is limited to tears. Of course, centipedes - this is not the insects, which are responsible for thousands of deaths, but many of us will be surprised to learn that every year someone dies from these bites. The fact that there may be an allergic reaction to insect venom, but it still happens very rarely.
13. The Black Scorpion
Let scorpions do not refer to insects, because they belong to the order of arthropods of the class of arachnids, but we still have them to this list, especially since the Black Scorpion - the most dangerous species of scorpions. Most of them live in South Africa, most often they can be found in desert areas. Black Scorpion differs from other species by their thick tails and slender legs. Black Scorpion stings by injecting poison his victim, which can cause pain, cause paralysis and even death of a person.
Another bloodsucker - reduviidae aka Assassin bug, aka Reduviidae. Their main diet consists of insects and their larvae, but some tropical species are not averse to drink the blood of small animals and even humans. Reduviidae responsible for the transfer of Chagas' disease, this beetle parasite frequently infects people living in poor rural areas.
Paraponera clavata - species of large tropical ants of the genus and subfamily Paraponera Smith Paraponerinae (Formicidae), having a strong sting. Named the bullet ant, for the reason that the bite victim compare him with a pistol shot. A person bitten by an ant so, can feel the throbbing and relentless pain for days after the bite. Some local Indian tribes (Satere-Mawe, Maue, Brazil), these ants are used in a very painful rites of initiation of boys into adulthood (which leads to temporary paralysis and even blackening stung the fingers). During the study of the chemical composition of the venom out of it has been allocated a paralyzing neurotoxin (peptide) called poneratoxin.
16. The Brazilian wandering spider
Also known as Phoneutria, the Brazilian wandering spider - poisonous creatures that live in tropical South America and Central America. The Guinness Book of Records in 2010 this type of spider named the most venomous spider in the world.
The poison of spiders of this genus contains a potent neurotoxin, known as PhTx3. The lethal concentration of the neurotoxin causes loss of muscle control and breathing problems, which leads to paralysis and eventually suffocation. Bite average pain, the venom causes immediate infection of the lymphatic system, getting into the bloodstream in 85% of cases leads to heart failure. Patients feel wild mortis in life in men is sometimes a priapism. There is an antidote, along with antibiotics applied, but due to the seriousness of the harm to the body poison detoxification procedure is actually equal to the victim's chances of survival.
17. The malarial mosquito
Malarial mosquitoes or anopheles - kind of two-winged insects, many species are vectors of human parasites - malaria parasites. A mosquito becomes infected with malaria plasmodium from man - the patient or carrier. Plasmodium falciparum extends in the mosquito sexual reproduction cycle. The infected mosquito becomes a source of infection for humans by 4-10 days after infection and is so for 16-45 days. Serve as mosquito vectors and other types of parasites that cause malaria in animals.
18. The rat flea
Rat fleas - one of the most dangerous species of fleas (Pulicidae), a carrier of the plague. They are parasites rats (Rattus, Nesokia) and gerbils (Gerbillinae). Are vectors of Yersinia pestis (Yersinia pestis) and Rickettsia typhi, as well as intermediate hosts of parasitic worms tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta rat and mouse tapeworm Hymenolepis nana. Diseases can be transmitted from one generation to another through the eggs.
19. The African honey bee
African bees (also known as killer bees) - descendants of the bees brought from Africa to Brazil in 1950 when trying to improve the production of honey in the country. Some African uterus began to interbreed with local European bees. The resulting hybrids have moved to the north and is still found in Southern California.
African bees look the same and in most cases behave like European honey bees, who are currently residing in the United States. They can only detect by DNA analysis. Their stings are not different from conventional bee sting. One very important difference between the two species - protective behavior of African bees, which is manifested in protecting their nests. In some attacks in South America, African bees kill livestock and people. This behavior AMP earned the nickname "killer bees."
In addition, this type of bees is known that behaves as an invader. Their swarms attacking normal hives honeybee, invading them and setting their queen. They attack in large colonies and are willing to destroy anyone who would encroach on their uterus.
Despite the fact that fleas do not usually perceived as dangerous, fleas transmit numerous diseases between animals and humans. Throughout history, they have contributed to the spread of many diseases such as bubonic plague.
21. Fire ants
Fire ants (English Fire ant.) - several related groups of species of ant Solenopsis saevissima species-group kind Solenopsis, having a strong sting and poison whose action is similar to a burn from a flame (hence their name). Often under that name appears invasive red imported fire ant that has spread around the world. Known cases of human ant sting one with severe consequences, anaphylactic shock, or death.
22. The brown recluse spider
A second spider in our list, the brown recluse, does not produce neurotoxins, like a black widow. Its bite kills the tissue and may cause damage to the healing that will take months.
The bite is very often overlooked, but in most cases are similar to the feeling of sensations at a prick with a needle. Then for 2-8 hours the pain makes itself felt. Further, the situation develops depending on the amount of poison that has entered the blood. The venom of brown recluse spider hemolytic action, and therefore, causes necrosis and tissue destruction. Bite for small children, elderly and sick people can be fatal.
23. Ants SIAF
Siafu (Dorylus) - these nomadic ants live mainly in Eastern and Central Africa, but also already found in tropical Asia. Insects live in colonies that can number up to 20 million individuals, all of which are blind. Traveling as they make their own with the help of pheromones. The colony has no permanent place of residence, wandering from place to place. During the movement to feed the larvae of insects are attacking all invertebrates.
Among these ants have a special group - the soldiers. They can sting, which use their hooked jaws, and the size of these fish reaches 13 mm. Jaws soldiers are so strong that in some places in Africa, they even used to secure the seams. The wound may be closed for the whole 4 days. Usually after the bite Siafu effects are minimal, it does not even need to call the doctor. However, it is believed that the young and the elderly are particularly sensitive to the bites of these ants, observed deaths from complications after exposure. As a result, each year, according to statistics, 20 to 50 people die from these insects. This contributes to their aggressiveness, especially in the defense of the colony, a person can accidentally attack.
24. The giant asian bumblebee
Many of us have seen the bees - they seem to be quite small, and there is no particular reason to fear them. Now imagine the Bumblebee, who grew up as if on steroids, or just look at the Asian giant. These hornets are the largest in the world - their length can be up to 5 cm, and the wingspan - 7, 5 centimeters. The length of the tip such insects can be up to 6 mm, but with such a bite can not be compared bee or wasp, bumble also can sting repeatedly. These dangerous insects in Europe or the United States to find, but traveling to East Asia and the mountains of Japan, and with them you can meet. To understand the effects of the bite, listen to eyewitnesses enough. They compare the thrill of the sting of a bumblebee with a hot nail, drove up.
Poison sting has 8 different compounds that cause discomfort and damaging soft tissue and creating a scent that can attract the victim of new bees. People who have an allergy to bees can die of a reaction, but there are cases of deaths due to poison mandorotoksina, which can be dangerous, hitting deep enough into the body. It is believed that each year from such bites kills about 70 people. Curiously, but the sting is not the main instrument of hunting bees - their enemies, they are crushed by large jaws.
The tsetse fly lives in tropical and subtropical Africa, took a fancy of the Kalahari Desert and the Sahara. Flies are vectors of trypanosomiasis, which lead to a disease of animals and humans with sleeping sickness. Tsetse anatomically very similar to their conventional cousins - they can be distinguished by the proboscis on the front of the head and a special manner of addition of the wings. It allows the proboscis and produce basic food - the blood of wild mammals in Africa. In this continent there are 21 species of flies, which can reach a length of 9 to 14 mm. It is not necessary to consider the flies quite so harmless to humans, because they are actually killing people, making it quite often. It is believed that in Africa up to 500,000 people are infected with sleeping sickness carried by these insects is. The disease interferes with the endocrine system and the heart. Then affects the nervous system, causing confusion in the mind, and sleep disorders. Bouts of fatigue are replaced hyperactivity.
The last major epidemic was detected in Uganda in 2008, the disease generally refers to the list of forgotten WHO. However, in Uganda, one of the last 6 years, 200 000 people died of sleeping sickness. It is believed that this disease is largely guilty of a worsening economic situation in Africa. Curiously, the flies attack any warm object, even a car, but they do not attack the zebra, considering it only flashing strips. Tsetse also saved Africa from overgrazing and soil erosion caused by cattle.
The man came up with different methods of dealing with these insects. In 30-ies on the west coast have destroyed all wild pigs, but it gave a result of 20 years. Now fight by shooting wild animals, die-cutting shrubs and treatment of male flies with radiation for the purpose of depriving them of opportunities to reproduce.