As to the Kremlin changed the eagles at the stars
In the fall of 1935 were ordered to live a long time the last character of the Russian monarchy - the double-headed eagles on the Kremlin towers. Instead, five-pointed stars were installed.
Why is a symbol of Soviet power was the five-pointed star is not known, but it is known that lobbied for this character Leon Trotsky. Seriously addicted to spirituality, he knew that the star, pentagram, has a very powerful energy potential and is one of the most powerful symbols. The symbol of the new state could easily become a swastika, whose cult was very strong in Russia at the beginning of the XX century. The swastika was depicted on the "Kerensky notes", swastikas painted on the wall of the Ipatiev House Empress Alexandra Fyodorovna before being shot, but almost the sole decision of Trotsky, the Bolsheviks decided on a five-pointed star. The history of the XX century still show that the "star" stronger "swastika" ... The stars shone, and over the Kremlin, replacing the two-headed eagles.
tysyachekillogrammovye hoisted the stars on the Kremlin towers was not an easy task. The catch was that the appropriate technology simply did not exist in 1935. The height of the lowest tower Borovitskaya, 52 meters, the highest, Trinity - 72 tower cranes that height was not in the country, but there are no words for Russian engineers, "no," there is the word "necessary". Experts Stalprommehanizatsii designed and built for each tower a special crane, which can be installed at the upper tier. At the base of the tent through the turret window was mounted metal base - console. It was collected by crane. Thus, in several stages, first held dismantling double eagles, and then hoisting the stars.
The weight of each of the Kremlin stars reached up to a ton. Given the height at which they were to stay or sailing surface of each star (6, 3 sq. M.), There was a risk that the stars simply throwing up together with the tops of towers. The tower has been decided to check for resistance. No wonder: the upper floors of towers and arches their tents come in a dilapidated state. Builders strengthened brickwork upper floors of all towers, tents Spassky, Trinity Borovitskaya towers and additionally introduced metal bond. Tent Nikolskaya tower was so dilapidated that it had to build anew.
So different and spin
Do the same stars were not. Four stars differ from each other decoration. On the faces of the stars of the Spasskaya tower were rays coming from the center. The star Trinity Tower beams were made in the form of spikes. Star Borovitskaya tower consisted of two contour inscribed one into another, and the rays of the star pattern Nikolskaya tower had. Star Spasskaya and Nikolskaya towers were similar in magnitude. The distance between the ends of beams was 4, 5 meters. Trinity Stars and Borovitskaya towers were smaller. The distance between the ends of beams were respectively 4 and 3, 5 meters. Stars - it's good, but the whirling stars - doubly good. Moscow is big, a lot of people, all need to see the Kremlin stars. At the base of each star we have established special bearings manufactured at the First Bearing Plant. Because of this, in spite of considerable weight, stars can easily be rotated by turning the "face" to the wind. According to the position of the stars, so you can judge which way the wind is blowing.
Set the Kremlin stars has become for Moscow real treat. The stars did not take the dead of night on Red Square. The day before the hoisting of the Kremlin towers stars put on display in the park to them. Gorky. Together with mere mortals at the stars come to see the secretaries of city and district of the CPSU (b), in the light of the spotlights shone Ural gems and stars sparkled rays. Eagles shot from the towers, installed here, clearly demonstrating the dilapidated "old" and the beauty of the "new" world.
The Kremlin stars were not always ruby. The first stars, established in October 1935, were from high-alloy stainless steel and red copper. In the middle of each star, on both sides, lined with sparkling gems hammer and sickle emblem. Gems in a year have faded, and the stars were too large and does not fit well into the architectural ensemble. In May 1937 it was decided to establish the new stars - glowing, ruby. At the same time the four towers with stars added another one - Vodovzvodnaya. Ruby glass was brewed in a glass factory in Konstantinovka, prescription Moscow steklovara N. Kurochkin. We had to cook 500 square meters of ruby glass, which was invented a new technology - "Selenium Ruby". Prior to that, in order to achieve the desired color in the glass added to gold; Selenium - it is cheaper and deeper color.
The Kremlin not only the stars revolve, but also shine. To avoid overheating and damage the stars passed through about 600 cubic meters of air per hour. Stars does not threaten power outages, because their energy is produced autonomously. Lamps for the Kremlin stars have developed at the Moscow Lamp Factory. Power of three - on the Spasskaya, Nikolskaya and Troitskaya Tower - 5000 watts and 3700 watts - on Borovitskaya and Vodovzvodnaya. In each mounted two filament connected in parallel. Burnout one light remains on, and the control panel receives a fault signal. To change the bulbs do not have to go up to the star, the lamp goes down on a special rod right through the bearing. On the whole procedure requires 30-35 minutes. In the history of the stars went out twice. Once - during the war, the second - during the filming of "The Barber of Siberia".