Significant events in 2018 in the field of science, medical innovation and a variety of fantastic features
The 2018 will be remembered? It was a great year in terms of advances in science, medical innovations and fantastic features, which were in the hands of mankind, and which give us an idea of what awaits us in the future.
The vaccine against Ebola tested in a combat zone
The ongoing outbreak of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where fighting is the second largest in the history of the infected are conducted - more than 500 people. But amid the tragedy and chaos, doctors made a remarkable feat: the first time in the history of experimental vaccine against Ebola is introduced on a large scale to prevent possible contamination and save lives.
rVSV-ZEBOV from the company Merk - the first highly effective vaccine against the fever. Due to the lack of interest of pharmaceutical companies, she literally lay on the shelf until 2014.
And just this year the vaccine began to massively use - doctors managed to vaccinate more than 45 000 people. The efficiency is very high - from 95 to 100%. Thus, it is hitherto unprecedented achievement in the use of vaccine against the fever.
The uterus of the dead woman was implanted with another woman, which led to the birth of a healthy child
uterus transplant from living donors - old news. This has been known since 2013. But this year in Brazil, doctors reported the first uterus transplant from a deceased donor, which has led to incredible results: a woman, a transplanted womb could give birth to a healthy baby girl. This is good news, indicating a breakthrough in the field of transplantation and giving hope to women who are struggling with infertility.
NASA launched a solar probe "Parker", which is close to the record distance to the Sun
One question puzzled geophysicists for decades: why the atmosphere of the Sun is much hotter than its surface? To answer this question and to better prepare for solar storms in August, NASA sent a probe to the sun.
By 2025, the probe approaches the surface of the sun on the record distance of 6, 4 million kilometers, overcoming incredible 692,000 kilometers per hour.
As of the end of October, the space probe has approached the Sun at a distance of about 43 million km., Which is a new record. Over the next few years, the probe will use gravity and Venus approach closer and closer to the surface of the sun.
When the probe closer to the sun, it will deal with a temperature of about 1, 4 million ℃, which corresponds to the temperature of the magma. But thanks to the engineering magic, "Parker" will be able to work comfortably under such conditions.
to help solve one of the most difficult questions of physics at the South Pole Observatory "Ice Cube"
In 1912, scientists discovered that subatomic particles - the building blocks of matter, such as protons, electrons, muons, neutrinos and quarks - fall to Earth each day. Some of these particles are so much energy that scientists have been puzzled as to what kind of objects in space are so powerful that they create. The problem with finding the source of these high-energy cosmic rays is that they do not always move in a straight line. This means that scientists can not trace them to their sources.
To solve this problem, Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole was built. It is located deep in the Antarctic ice, and is a block of pure ice crystal volume of 1 cubic kilometer surrounded sensors. These sensors are configured to detect subatomic particles called neutrinos.
Scientists have caught one of these neutrinos in the ice cube and were able to trace it to its source - it was a special galaxy, called blazar.
Abortion by mail is possible now in the US
With the help of Aid Access the new online service, women can gain access to a safe medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol pills that can be taken home. The service was launched this year, Rebecca Gomperts, the Dutch physician and human rights activist, in response to numerous requests from American women seeking abortion. During the six months of service pills were sent to approximately 600 women.
Women go online consultation about her pregnancy (gestational age should be no more than 10 weeks) and contraindications. Only then Gomperts writes a prescription and sends it to a pharmacy in India, which she knows and trust.
Next, the tablets are sent from India by mail to the woman. The service costs $ 95 (although Aid Access states that find ways to help women who can not pay the costs). If necessary, women can gain access to the instructions and support in real time.
Trees absorb huge amounts of carbon dioxide
A new study shows that trees are extremely efficient absorbers of carbon dioxide. So a single tree in the Amazon rainforest absorbs almost 22 kilograms of carbon dioxide per year. This means that the forest can absorb as much carbon dioxide as it emit some countries. This year, scientists reported that the Amazon rainforest over the past 30 years, largely offset emissions in every country of South America, except Venezuela.
This is a powerful argument in favor of the preservation of natural ecosystems, reconstruction of destroyed and planting new forests.
Salvation Thai children from the cave
In late June, the strong monsoon rains flooded a remote cave in the north of Thailand, with the result that 12 young football players and their coach could not get out. Their amazing rescue was delayed for two weeks. The share of the boys dropped a difficult test. Fortunately, everything got out of the cave alive and healthy. Unfortunately, the one lost diver who delivered the cave oxygen cylinders during the rescue operation