10 archaeological findings that shed light on life in ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt - amazing culture. Monuments of the time, such as the Great Pyramids and the Sphinx, causing awe and today people. The interest of researchers produce and ancient Egyptian papyri. After all, Egypt - one of the earliest cultures, representatives of which were detailed notes of everything happening.
But today scientists know far not all the secrets of ancient Egypt, and researchers continue to make startling discoveries. What is currently known about the science of life in ancient Egypt?
In the Egyptian city of Gears in 1911 archaeologists found the tomb, which houses nine metal beads. Incredibly, it was found that the beads appeared 2,000 years earlier than in Egypt began to smelt iron. Since then, historians have puzzled over where the ancient Egyptians took the iron to the beads. Egyptian hieroglyph, which stands for iron, literally translated as "the metal of the sky", which gives a very good reference to understand its origin.
Due to the rarity of the metal, it is mainly associated with wealth and power. From it mainly produced jewelry and trinkets for the royal family, not a weapon, as it was adopted later. In the 1980s, the chemical analysis showed that the level of nickel beads was similar to the one found in meteorites. So the Egyptians thousands of years before they learned to smelt the metal, there was iron. This may also explain the mystery of Tutankhamun's dagger made of iron and gold.
Today people get tattoos for different reasons: to impress a loved one, to emphasize their difference from others, or to talk about their interests. The mummy, found in the village of Deir el-Medina, was the confirmation that the tattoos were the ancient Egyptians. Mummy Deir el-Medina - headless and armless torso, which belonged to a woman who lived between 1300 and 1070 years BC. e. With the help of infrared light on it 30 distinct tattoos was found. What is unique in this mummy, tattoo it did during his lifetime, not after death as a religious ritual. Most characters have been devoted to the mighty goddess Hathor. Soon three similar mummies, tattoos were also used for the expression of religious piety were found.
Another 4,000 years ago, the Egyptians were very much afraid of demons. However, until recently scientists had no idea how the Egyptians represented them. It was not until as long as you did not find two coffins dating from the Middle Kingdom (about 4,500 years ago), in which the image of the world's oldest demons were found. One of them, called In-MEP, was a mixture of dog and baboon, and the other on behalf of Cherie-Benut, it was a strange creature with a human head.
The demons are depicted as two guards the entrance to the tomb, but what they actually met is unknown. Also on another tomb was found Ikenti image - a demon that looked like a big bird with a cat's head.
The ancient heart disease
Atherosclerosis - a chronic disease of the arteries, which is now very common. A sedentary lifestyle and a diet rich in fatty foods contribute to this disease. It is not surprising that doctors thought: atherosclerosis - a fairly new disease and it was not common in ancient populations. Egyptologists have also found that it was a very common disease and thousands of years ago.
After studying 52 mummies at the National Museum of Antiquities in Cairo it revealed that 20 of them had signs of calcification, which means that they are likely to suffer from atherosclerosis in the course of their lives. Their age averaged about 45 years, and they lived in the 16th century BC. One of the mummies belonged to the royal family, namely princess Ahmose-Meriet-Amon, who lived in Thebes, and died forty years. It is considered the oldest person who had coronary heart disease.
The Egyptian ladies
In the modern days when a woman's hair begin to thin out, there are several ways to fix it. Apparently, women in the past had the same problem because of the remains of a woman have been found in the destroyed Egyptian city of Amarna, it was 70 of extension hair, similar to those used today.
Her hair was so well done that they have survived to this day, though the rest of the woman's body disintegrated (she died 3300 years ago and was not mummified). At the cemetery, where was buried a woman, were found and other body hair, dyed with henna.
Some 100 years ago was excavated in Giza 45-inch sargofag. He was taken to the University of Cambridge, where he was sent to the store and forget about it. Initially thought that the tiny coffin separate bodies placed for an unknown reason. But after careful research on MRI discovered that it is actually 16-18 week human embryo, which were mummified and buried in its own purpose-built sarcophagus for him, which contained the intricate designs and decorations.
As with heart disease, cancer, until recently, was considered a purely modern disease. About the disease was never mentioned in the historical records. However, this does not mean that the cancer has not been in the ancient world. According to recent studies, the two mummies, male and female, were found indications that they were suffering from cancer.
In 2015, the Spanish university found the mummy, which has signs of damage from breast cancer have been found. 4200-year-old mummy - a woman who lived during the sixth dynasty of pharaohs.
An ancient papyrus
In 2011, archaeologist Pierre Tallet made a remarkable discovery in a remote area of Egypt, far from any civilization. In thirty caves in the limestone rock showed a kind of warehouse for the storage of boats in ancient Egypt. But even more stunning was the discovery that he had made a few years later, in 2013 - a series of papyri, written on both sides of hieroglyphs and hieratic (informal, everyday writing of the ancient Egyptians), the papyri are the oldest papyri that have ever been discovered.
official journal was found among them named Merer, who led a group of 200 men who are responsible for ensuring that materials and provisions of workers in the construction of the Great Pyramid.
The brain drain in ancient Egyptian
In 525 BC. e., the Persian king Cambyses conquered the Egyptian capital Memphis. After the conquest of Egypt, the great majority of Egyptian minds and artists began to export to Persia, there to serve the empire. In Egypt, there were only mediocre artists, which is perfectly visible on the tomb, discovered in 2014. Despite the fact that the body in the coffin was found, the researchers found that the tomb dates from about the years of Persian occupation.
What is interesting, initially thought that the tomb is a fake because it was made very crudely and poorly. However, later it turned out that it really original. On the tomb there is a lot of bizarre images, including poorly drawn Falcons (symbols of the god Horus), which are more like fish, four banks with the heads of the four sons of Horus, who were described as "headless" and other mistakes on Egyptian mythology.
Egyptian sexy spell
In 2016, two scrolls of papyrus of the third century AD were transcribed, which were written in Greek. 1700 summer rolls, which were found a century ago, were kept in the University of Oxford in England. Only now it turned out that they were written by the sexual spells intended to fall in love with another man. Author unknown spells, but they are mentioned several Gnostic gods.