The richest business clans from Germany to India
Central bankers of Florence of the Medici, the richest Russian merchants Morozov and breeders Demidov, the first dollar-billionaire Rockefeller, French and British Rothschilds, pets kings on both sides of the English Channel - all these dynasties became a symbol of wealth and enterprise. History knows many families built from the ground real business empire.
Recall 9 world clans with a glorious past and successful present.
The pioneers of German capitalism, founded the powerful German banking house in the XV century. Central bankers of the Habsburg Empire were descended from the simple weavers, who in the XIV century, moved to Augsburg in southwestern Bavaria. There they started a small but profitable business. Soon, with sales of local weavers, they moved to usury. Fuggers so prospered that began to lend itself to the Habsburgs. The latter do not remain in debt and in 1488 handed over to the family for use of copper and silver mines of the Tyrol and Hungary. While the head of the family was Jakob Fugger. For the possession of the first state in Europe Jacob called the people rich.
With the support of the Fuggers, Charles V of Habsburg acquired the crown of the Holy Roman Empire. These same for loans sent his nuncios Pope. However, friendship with the rulers played a cruel joke with the Fugger. At the beginning of the XVII century, Karl led the endless wars in Europe, the more devastating the coffers and purses Fugger. Actually, the Habsburgs, which the Fuggers owed their empire, and hammered the final nail into the coffin of the banking house in the middle of the XVII century that was completely ruined exorbitant costs. However, the case was not over at all: in the Fugger preserved land and influential position in society. Their descendants still live in Germany and hold Fürst Fugger Privatbank.
Berenberg Bank, founded in 1590 - the world's first private sector bank and the second oldest after the Monte dei Paschi of Siena. According to family legend, the genus comes from the Berenberg brothers Hans and Paul, the enterprising Dutch Protestants of Antwerp, who fled from the war with the Catholics in 1585 and settled in Hamburg. Since Hamburg was one of the cities of the Hanseatic League, the richest northern European merchants guild, Berenberg well fit into the European business. Besides usury, they were doing more and sale of fabrics and finished garments. Thanks to family and friendly contacts in other European countries Berenberg launched a brisk trade in Hamburg.
At the end of the XVIII century Berenberg Bank was actually the only commercial enterprise in Europe, which is controlled, albeit short-lived, the woman - Elisabeth Berenberg. Actually, due to the lack of successors in the male line from Berenberg went two more important for Germany Dynasty Gosslerov and Seiler. Family enjoyed great respect until the First World War. So, Berenberg held in the Senate of the city since 1735.
Like other major European houses, Berenberg was no stranger to patronage. In the 1870s, Ernest Gosslera money was equipped German expedition to Antarctica led by Eduard Dallmann. Opened in 1873, the island Dallmann in gratitude named Gosslerovymi.
Dynasty survived two world wars, the collapse and the reunification of Germany. Berenberg Bank's head office - Gossler is still in Hamburg and operated by descendants of the family - they own 25% stake in the company.
The beginning of the dynasty Salih laid Kaduri, a Jew from Baghdad, a successful merchant and businessman. During the life of Salih's family engaged in the affairs mainly in Bombay, India. After his death in 1876, two sons Salih moved to Hong Kong. In the middle of the XX century Kaduri opened trade offices throughout the East, engaged in the hotel business, electricity, real estate, owned plantations of rubber. But the main profit comes from banks network. Family members involved in a lot of charity work, opened schools for Jews and Arabs, the synagogue was built. Elissa Kaduri was a prominent member of the Zionist movement. His money built the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.
In 1917, another member of the clan Elly Kadoorie received the title of knight. He died in 1922. According to his will, £ 100,000 waste on the development of education in British Mandate Palestine. His son Lawrence was later elected to the British House of Lords. During the Second World War Kaduri helped Jewish families in Europe. Their name is one of the oldest synagogues in Portugal Porto.
Rose Kaduri was married to pioneer the US Air Force and Berryer du spy Iller. Son of Lawrence Kadoorie Michael (pictured) today is one of the top 10 richest people in Hong Kong, married to Kubinka and collects antique cars.
the founder of Cornelius Vanderbilt was born in 1794 in Port Richmond, on the territory of present-day New York. Son of a farmer of Dutch descent, Cornelius 11 years old dropped out of school, wishing to start their own business. At 16, he bought a barge on the money borrowed from his mother. Transportation of passengers was profitable - the debt it paid during the year, its profits minus the cost of the barge was $ 1,000. For 17 years, Vanderbilt became the owner of the company for the maritime transport of passengers. By the end of 1880 he was the first person in the American steamship business, bought up half of New York and launched intercontinental transportation. The people respectfully called "Commander". At the time of the death of the state Vanderbilt reached $ 100 million - based on today's exchange rate $ 143 billion.
For three centuries the family gave the world the beautiful and talented successors. Consuelo Vanderbilt was one of the most attractive women beginning of the XX century, and Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney founded the Museum of American Art. Gloria Vanderbilt stands out from the living representatives of the dynasty (pictured) - actress, socialite and founder of the eponymous brand of jeans. It is one of the first brought into fashion blue jeans. On account of its release bedding line, clothing and perfume. In 2009 she published an autobiography, which has frankly told about all his erotic adventures. In 2014, Vanderbilt heiress 90 years.
The family of major German industrialists, famous for the production of steel and arms. Krupp are descended from the early XVII century. There is a legend that the first capital Arndt Krupp, small moneylender from Essen, has acquired in 1600 - fear doomsday devout essences sold their property for pennies and crowded into churches, begging for forgiveness in the event of the Last Judgment. Krupp, allegedly did not believe in the end of the world, bought the house and jewels for a penny, and then, when it became clear that the alarm was false, at exorbitant prices to sell all the old masters. There is another, more plausible version: Arndt Krupp arrived in Essen during the pandemic of plague and became rich by buying the houses of those who fled the city for fear of contagion.
Steel business and the production of military weapons has become a matter Krupp family in the time of the Napoleonic Wars in the early XIX century. First major deal Alfred Krupp made in 1859 - he sold to William I 312 steel guns invented by Krupp. Since then, the Krupp were the main suppliers of military weapons in Germany. The victory in the war was seen as a great success Kruppstahl with France in 1870.
During the first world war, Krupp supplied the German army weapons. Hitler, who in the 1920s became a prominent political figure, Krupp looked down - it was not a man of their circle. However, after coming to power, Gustav Krupp adopted the Nazi ideology: behind it was even called "supernatsi" so zealously defended industrialist NSDAP beliefs.
At the Nuremberg trials Gustave was convicted, but he was not arrested - in 1941 he suffered a stroke, after which was never able to recover. Krupp died in 1950 in a roadside hotel in the German wilderness, where he lived with his wife Bertha five years. His son Alfred was a member of the SS and did not hide his sympathy for Hitler. On the Krupp factory were forced to work the prisoners from the occupied countries, Jews and Slavs were treated with cruelty. In Alfred Nuremberg sentenced to 12 years in prison and confiscation of all property, but two years later the Americans he was amnestied and returned most of the plants. Until the late 1990s, Krupp remained the elite of German industry, passing the management of the company from father to son. In 1997, there was a large merger Krupps and Thyssen and formed ThyssenKrupp AG, one of the most powerful industrial concerns of modern Germany.
The founder of Toyota and the Japanese father of the industrial revolution, Sakichi Toyoda was born in 1867 in the family of a poor carpenter. Thanks to numerous inventions Toyoda often called the Japanese Thomas Edison. In 1890, he invented a loom with manual control, which brought him a man who does not have even a school, a considerable fortune.
In 1920 Sakichi traveled to Europe and the United States. There he first saw the cars that are completely captured his imagination. Coming back to Japan, he founded the company. In 1930, Sakichi died, and his company passed to his son from his first marriage Kiichiro. It is the successor of the founder of the dynasty and produced the first car Toyota in 1936.
Sons and grandsons Kiichiro headed the company until 1992. In 2000, Toyota Motor Corporation in the management of great-grandson of Sakichi Toyoda came Akio (pictured), who 12 years later received the title of the number one person in the car business.
One of the oldest and most prominent business dynasties in the East, Ispahani is descended from the Iranian Isfahan. Founder Clan Mohammed Hashem moved to Bombay, India in 1820 and founded the family business. In Ispahani was not certain specialization - they were engaged and trade of tea, spices and leather, and real estate and hotel business. Mirza Abu Talib Ispahani one of the first to do business in Europe at the end of the XVIII century among Eastern businessmen. Since then, almost all members of the family in the male line were educated in the best private schools and universities in Britain and America.
In 1900, it opened in London Ispahani & Sons office. In 1934, the company was formed on the basis of M.M. Ispahani Limited, which during the Second World War actively traded chemicals, jute bags, tea and shellac. After the 1947 Pakistan gained independence Ispahani transferred to a large part of its business. Their family occupied a key place in the Pakistani economy - in particular, Mirza Ahmed Ispahani was the largest shareholder of the Pakistani International Airlines. His son Mehdi served as head of M.M. Ispahani Limited until his death in 2004.
Company and today heads the Mehdi children. As before, Ispahani engaged in almost all types of businesses, from hotels and Internet delivery to trade tea and crackers.
In 1743, nineteen Jacobite Richard Hennessy ran away from home to join the Irish troops who fought for the French King Louis XV against the British hated him. At the end of the 1740s it started the war a young man in the French region of Charente, in which he decided to return after almost 20 years - in 1765.
In the town of Cognac Hennessy opened a trading office and small-scale production of cognac. By happy coincidence Hennessy cognac fell on the royal table. Louis XVI liked the drink, and soon from wanting to buy Hennessy products there was no release. Already in the late 1790s began to export cognac to the UK and America. King George IV was a big fan of Hennessy production. In 1865, Maurice Hennessy cognac came up gradation of taste and quality - the famous five-star rating. Today the company, which produces a third of the world's annual drunk brandy, directs Maurice Richard (pictured), a representative of the eighth generation of Hennessy.
The son of farmers, an Alsatian Jew Leopold Dreyfus founded the small company of the grain trade in 1851 - first he took the family farm products for sale in Basel, Switzerland, and then, when it turned out to be profitable, and began working on the neighbors. The company was recorded at his father, Leopold himself was still too young to call it by its name (he later changed his name to Louis-Dreyfus). Seven years later, he moved to Bern and became engaged in the supply of grain from Eastern to Western Europe. After the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 Alsace went to Germany, but the German Leopold chose French citizenship and moved to Paris. By 1900, the company Louis-Dreyfus was the number one supplier of grain in the world.
Leopold Louis-Dreyfus died in 1915, at the height of the First World War. The company passed to his sons, Louis and Charles. Wealth and influence in the industry helped Louis to become the first deputy and then senator of the Third Republic. Together with his brother he sponsored the main organ of the French Communist Humanité. After the death of Louis in 1940. Louis-Dreyfus group of companies management passed to his cynovyam. Pierre Louis-Dreyfus during the Second World War was one of the most prominent fighters of the French Resistance, and in the 1950s very well come back to the business. Pierre died in 2011 at the age of 102 years. His son Gerard is now in '81. In 2006, Forbes estimated his fortune at 3, $ 4 billion.
Margarita Louis-Dreyfus (pictured), the wife of another descendant of Leopold Robert Dreyfus, by the way, comes from Russia. As of 2014 it ranked second in the top of the richest women in France (the first from the owner of the L'Oréal Liliane Bettencourt). Her wealth is estimated at € 8, 5 billion of its well-know sports fans -. Margarita Louis-Dreyfus owns a football club - Marseille "Olympic".