Life American truckers
Long distance in the US - is not a job, it's a lifestyle. Since the signing of President Eisenhower National Act on the construction of 66,000 kilometers of highways and roads in the United States in 1956, truckers profession remains one of the most popular, as well as one of the most highly paid professional drivers.
Each year in the US trucks carrying about 10 billion. Tons of goods worth more than $ 9 trillion. dollars. Today, everything is transported using trucks without them the American economy is going to die.
Across the US road system provides specialized truck stop, which are always seen from afar, on such pit stops, drivers can get a full rest, to shower and eat very well.
Today specialized stops for truckers Bole 6000.
Most pit stops have service line, which is capable of in a short time, to repair the truck, by the way, do truckers truck called "rig".
Of course, you do not change the engine, but the change of the wheel without any problems, oil, repair lost or mirror the leaking fuel line will replace the pads, and carry out other required repairs.
The big logistics companies, such as UPS or Snyder, having in the presence of hundreds of trucks have their own branded large pit stops for the repair and maintenance of vehicles. In other cases, even large companies use the pit stops that occur on the roads.
Villas for truckers separated from gas stations for cars. This is due to the fact that, firstly, truck fuel tanks much more, and usually trucks have two tanks of 300-500 liters. Trucks which operate in remote areas away from civilization, e.g., in oil, and may have two tank capacity of 1500 liters. Gas pumps such stations very powerful, and the fuel pump is approximately 4 times faster than a conventional pump.
Second, the tanks are located on both sides of the truck, so the speakers are equipped with two hoses on both sides of the truck. Thirdly, having a trailer length of 16 meters (53 feet), it is difficult to park on a normal refueling, so the entrance / exit to such a dispenser make wide and straight as possible, which greatly facilitates the work of the driver.
Why so much fuel? Laden "wagon" consumes 35-40 liters of fuel per 100 km.
By the way, an interesting point: truck idling burns about 4 liters per hour, 1 hour of idling is equivalent to 10 kilometers, and all trucks in the US consumes about 6 billion liters of fuel a year..
In addition to the special stops on all highways in the United States provided the recreation area, usually every 130-180 km. In these recreational areas are provided tables and benches under the eaves, where you can eat, vending sneakers, drinks and other stuff, toilets and even showers (but not always). On these grounds, drivers can warm up, check the status of the machine and securing cargo.
All truckers are subject to regulation, as the Department of Transport, which sets the number of working hours and the maximum speed.
The drivers are divided into two broad classes: vnutrishtatovskie - who travel exclusively within the boundaries of one state, never crossed the state line, and mezhshtatovskie, ie those that can be moved between the 49 states...
What is the difference? Mezhshtatovsky driver can be a day at the wheel 14 hours, after which he is obliged to stop and rest for 10 hours. Moreover, 14 hours and 10 hours of rest can not be interrupted, ie. E. Can not go to 2:00, then 2 to rest, then go another 5 hours. As soon as the truck started moving, 14 hours began ticking.
The internal drivers have different privileges in different states. In Texas, the driver can be behind the wheel of 14 hours, working 16, and for the rest only 8 hours of need. In addition, the driver can not operate for more than 70 hours during the 8 days or 60 hours during 7 days. If the driver worked for 65 hours in 6 days, he needs rest - 34 hours. In turn, companies that are not cheated, must be written in the contract for whatever scheme they work, 8- or 7-day "week".
The company is very strictly monitor the number of working hours, ie. A. The amount of fine in case of violation is very high. Previously, drivers had a paper logs, which record operating hours today, all large and medium-sized companies have computers that do calculate time, distance and place to stay, although paper logs are still the drivers are, in the event of a computer failure.
Another option, which was very particular about the police, but that is not very fond of the transport company - is weight. The maximum permissible limit for a two-axle trailer resting on two axle truck - 36 tons, with a greater number of axles load should be increased.
On the whole road system, spread the weight control stations, drivers pass through them coasting, usually at a speed of 60 km / h. If seen overweight, you have to stop for inspection and receive a fine. The penalty is issued to the company.
In order to calculate the weight, there are tables that have all truckers carrying loads exceeding the allowable load.
All ranged trucks carrying dangerous loads, labeled boxes, which are divided into nine main categories included in the 5 main groups: explosive, flammable, toxic, corrosive substances and radioactive elements.
In addition, drivers, transporting such cargoes provided with a full set of loads documents and are limited in maximum speed. For example, with potatoes wagon can travel on the highway 130 km / h, the fuel - 110 km / h, and radioactive elements only 100 km / h.
Not every driver can carry dangerous goods. To do this, you need to obtain an additional certificate to the driver's category. The most difficult to obtain certificates - it's explosive loads and radioactive elements.
The drivers carrying loads ultrahazardous (explosives and radioactive elements), are required to take a course in special schools and to know everything about the transported materials, as well as learn how to properly act in emergency situations.
Large companies have their own training grounds, where drivers learn to withdraw the truck from skidding, right to withdraw the truck into a ditch and get a lot of other skills.
The total number of drivers who have passed the school and having the right to transport cargo ultrahazardous, representing 3% of the total number of drivers. These drivers are the elite amongst drivers. Their salary starts at $ 100 thousand. Per year.
Another interesting feature of the truck, carrying a variety of delivery - truck tail. Very comfortable, by the way, do not need to worry that the pallets do not withdraw somewhere in a warehouse, or outside the house.
Sometimes it can be seen on the highway, and the military, they have no privilege, the maximum speed of movement of the military - 100 km / h. Usually they are moved "bunches" convoy, and at night, the day the convoy - a rarity.
Today Truckers are an integral part of road landscapes in America, and their number continues to grow.