PPC. Chain. Restricted area. Concrete slab draw a road along gloomy gray line structures. Security staring at our car, but does not block the way ... Here, behind the barriers raised by the kindest of foxes in the world.
- started experiment with foxes Academician Belyaev. He made sure to build those cages in which we are going, - says the candidate of biological sciences, and our guide Anton Sivkov. - Belyaev outlined scientific approach that will transform a wild fox in the home. For the experiment, we selected one hundred most friendly females and males of thirty, and then began to cross them in a certain way, so that animals become kinder.
"It brought a unique breed of over fifty years in the closed economy of foxes who are experiencing warm feelings to the man."
When the experiment was conceived in Soviet times, it satisfies a purely scientific interests. Today, in the era of welcoming the interest of the capitalist, at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences created a company that sells hand-foxes.
- We got a ready-to-sell product. Perhaps foolish not to exploit the commercial potential of such a long experiment - recognized Anton, head of the company. - Since January, foxes are sold into private hands. Economy can grow them up to four hundred a year.
Price question - fifty thousand rubles. Applications to date more than a hundred and five foxes have bushy tails pleased new owners.
According to Anton Sivkova, animals are now primarily require socialization. The fact is that the foxes are in standard cellular conditions and do not see a lot of people.
If sotsializator will be built, the scientists have developed a technique fox training, and their pets will learn to dwell in an apartment.
But the question buries in additional funding - funds of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, is not enough. So while foxes can only live in cages, to which institution has specific requirements: 7-8 square meters on two floors in height.
- there we animal lovers, who was wounded in the chest and said that they will do all the conditions for the fox in the apartment. But in fact, nothing was done and we had to say goodbye to them, - says Anton.
To feed the furry crowd, the farm has a kitchen, where they prepare a special stuffing with useful additions. At home, feed the fox can be like a normal dog. Only here from normal dogs, especially aggressive, pet should protect - amplified gene kindness still in the genotype - to fight the fox is not. The courtship and there is one more feature: foxes are very sensitive to heat. Thick fur keeps them in the most severe frosts, but at high temperatures the fox overheat and suffer, but because in the aviary is necessary to create a shadow. More specific conditions for the fox is not required on vaccination care manufacturers.
Humanists and aggressors
- And here and Nastya - Anton points to a serious woman.
Senior Researcher Evolutionary genetics lab Anastasia V. Kharlamov ten years studying the foxes.
- When to start the selection, 50 years ago, that those methods of what is now genetics work, yet did not exist, - says Anastasia. - Even foreign scientists say that Dmitry K. Belyaev as if he could have foreseen that in half a century methods reach this level, and you can look for very subtle behavioral mechanisms. In other words, it is ahead of time created a model that is now used in molecular genetic studies. But foxes genome yet - throws up his hands Anastasia - individual pieces transcribed and genetic map there.
Match to the first cells to foxes. Around - the suspicious silence, and more than a hundred eyes followed us with a look, if we do something seriously hurt.
My first thought: "If you think these home, what then is the wild?"
We quickly soothe:
- This is the aggressor, especially grown. They have strengthened the feeling of fear of man, so they react to you. They have specially numbered to avoid confusion with hand - those with nicknames. These bite can.
And the truth is, if you stand in the cage, the fox begins to rush from side to side and try to bite you through the bars. And next to the aggressors sit solitary fox, on the cell that says "Ebba". So hand. What is she doing here?
- They have this "love" or "dislike" of man lies at the genetic level, so that they can not affect each other. A aggressors have much less, the whole compartment is not enough - had podselyat.
Finally, Asking the most important question: how did the idea of breeding of foxes?
- Many scientists, dating back to Darwin, thought why there was such a variety of domestic animals. Any wild ancestor of any pet - for example, a wolf, a dog ancestor - less volatile than the homemade look, which is obtained from it. They differ in color, coat texture, sizes vary greatly, and wild species - uniformly.
The scientists wondered: what is the source of diversity in domestic animals? Belyaev assumed it genes that control behavior.
Tackling them leads to the destabilization of all the other systems of the body, that is, they have a regulatory effect. To test this, Belyaev had the idea to hold a historic domestication (domestication - approx Siburbia.), Which would be limited in time, and selection was conducted would be stricter in order to speed up the process to the duration of the life of one human generation.
The fox was not chosen by chance: it was necessary to test a huge number of animals, and there were many in fur farms. The selection was very hard - to choose the most tolerant person. And genes were identified as a result of this selection, are responsible for this behavior.
Democracy instead of sable
Go in the compartment to manual foxes. What begins to happen here! Each is trying to make sure that we pay attention to it - they knock on the bowl, urchat, wag their tails, trying to lick his hand.
- And manual foxes have a sense of attachment to the person?
- They have a desire to communicate with the person, and with anyone. It turns out, they have a sense of "eternal longing" for the man laid at the genetic level. In friendly and aggressive care exactly the same - in the morning staff member came, fed, cleaned and left. They have no attachment to any particular person. But later they become accustomed to his master. And now they are happy to claim.
Our attention is attracted by a fox with a sign "Democracy". In the cell, it looks like something's too much symbolic.
- We've got both purebred dogs - the name of the cub should begin on the first letter of the name of the mother. Therefore, we who just do not have - and Tsiklopediya and Ararat, and peroxide, and this is democracy. We have all the dictionaries and encyclopedias break inventing them nicknames.
- A favorite of employees have? Each of them stands in a certain compartment, or are they changing?
- For each worker his department stipulates foxes get used to them, even aggressive, learn how to sort. And try not to get yourself pets.
"We've got a woman, she had already retired, but continues to run. So here it goes, talking to the fox-like with people: praise, he asked how they were doing. "
Fox named Peroxide - white with black spots like a Dalmatian, and a black stripe along the spine (color "gruzinochka") - trusting rubs against the hand and tries to bite in earnest, not painful.
- And here at the zoo fox is not very aggressive - this is not your doing?
- We gave there as something small, young naturalists in the area. Like foxes it was tame, and, perhaps, due to the change of the situation began to behave aggressively - they were returned, only one left. Then they are very young - month lisonka have said they themselves will grow as they should.
When you look at these tame animals, it is not clear why so few people buy them. The owners of the cottages, which would create the necessary conditions for foxes, seemingly lacking in the country. Price is quite acceptable - like purebred dogs or cats.
There are, of course, the traditional reason: that in the Siberian city bred tame foxes, abroad known better than in Russia.
- We were even a few years ago came to the Discovery, made a film about our animals - says Anton, - it is easy to find on the Internet can be. But abroad his problems with the purchase of a fox. Home - the laws. In Europe there are several countries in which it is impossible to bring foxes, in some US states, you can keep these animals at home, but not in all. And with transportation difficulties no special - all like dogs. They are well tolerated by plane, train worse, of course. "This idea basically interesting - There are no such things. Generally a good idea to fox was the emblem of VAT ".
It seems that now the fox can really claim to be the symbol of the Novosibirsk region, displacing indifferent to humanity sables. Only literate PR and tools. But neither the regional nor the municipal administration, unfortunately, did not respond to the foxes. A red, gray and speckled friendly animals yearn for the person waiting for the hosts.