Biathlon: history and development. Biathlon federation of Russia
This sport is today considered one of the oldest. Its origins go back to a life of primitive people. History biathlon begins at a time when the people of the northern regions of the Earth went hunting. This is confirmed and drawings found in Norway, made on rocks about five thousand years ago.
The history of biathlon is: these ancient people skiing, hunting using primitive weapons, and became the ancestors of this sport.
Also find confirmation succeeded and in Asia, where ancient inhabitants portrayed on the rocks flying horses on his feet hunters. They were used when there is a need to pursue what some wildlife snowy winter. All this is clear evidence that the shooting and cross-country skiing are the necessary conditions for the survival of many northern peoples. With these and associated appearance biathlon.
But no one thought at a time, it can become a sporting passion. It was a necessary skill, without which there was no way to feed themselves.
The first biathlon competition
But the very first event in the history of the biathlon were held in 1767. They organized the Norwegian and Swedish border guards. Skiers had to come down from the slope of the average slope at the end of which it was necessary to get the gun at the target located at a distance of forty or fifty paces from the firing.
It is worth noting that although biathlon appeared thousands of years ago, until recently, had no widespread. I began to actively develop only at the turn of XIX-XX centuries. For example, in the 19th century it became a mandatory exercise for Norwegian soldiers. The reason is that snow is needed for these events, in most countries is not so long.
Biathlon at the Olympics
The first major competition of the sport immediately became the Olympic Games. In 1924, the biathlon was included in the first Winter Olympic Games held in the French town of Chamonix.
True, the name then was quite different. Sport called military patrol (according to some sources - military patrols race). Besides, it was the demonstration competitions, although later the participants and awarded the Olympic medals.
At the first competition was held only one race, which was attended by 6 teams (each for 4 persons). These were the teams of Italy, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Switzerland, France and Finland. The weather conditions were so bad that the team of Italy and Poland withdrew from the race.
More precisely all the shooting range were the French, who have made at all only two misses. But it did not help them win. About 20 minutes later, they lost to the winners - the Swiss. Second place went to the team of Finland.
The status of the demonstration biathlon competitions and stayed in three consecutive games before being altogether excluded from the global sporting calendar for the popular pacifist sentiment in society, related to the events of World War II.
The birth of the modern biathlon
The history of biathlon in the form in which we know it today, has its origins in 1948, when it became the International Federation of Modern Pentathlon. In 1953, she began to oversee the biathlon. A year later, the International Olympic Committee officially recognized his sport. And soon approved and the rules of international competition.
In 1958 already, the first major international competitions in this sport. In Austria, the World Cup takes place. In the framework passes the individual race among men by 20 kilometers. In 1960, the biathlon for the first time officially included in the program of the Winter Olympic Games. In 1960 at the Olympics in biathlon one set of awards has been played. It was an individual race with a separate start. Participation in it took 30 athletes representing 9 countries. I was won by the Swede Klas Lestander, not allowing a single miss in the distance. The second to finish came Finn Antti Tyurvyaynen at once Overshot the first two lines. Bronze medal from the Soviet biathlete Alexander Privalov, who committed just three misses on the last rack. In this course, he conceded only compatriot Vladimir Melanin, missing 4 times and took the 4th place, and the Frenchman René Mercier, who was fastest in the race, but made 15 errors. However, he still took 22 place.
In 1965, the Federation argues the rules of men's relay race. At the same time there is and the age limit. The distance is prohibited to go to athletes under 21 years old.
A year later at the World Cup was first held men's relay race. At the same time we changed the rules of shooting. Do without the fine could only hitting the bull's-eye. If the bullet was provided in the outer radius, then added to the final time of 1 minute, or if the shot was quite inaccurate, then 2 minutes.
In 1968, the baton was in the Winter Olympic Games. It won a victory in the Soviet athletes - Alexander Tikhonov, Victor Mamatov, Nikolay Puzanov Vladimir Gundartsev. Two penalties, they went against Norway and Sweden, who took second and third respectively.
Over time, there were new disciplines, such as sprinting, which is present in the program of the Olympic Games since 1980.
Biathlon in the Soviet Union,
Biathlon in the Soviet Union began to be cultivated in the 50s. In 1958, the men's team has been formed for the first time, which took part in the World Cup. The selection for the world championship was held in the domestic competitions. According to the results of starts in the territory of the Soviet Union, the first domestic biathletes who went to international competitions, were Alexander Gubin Victor Butakov, Dmitry Sokolov and Valentin Pshenitsyn. Coach of the national team was appointed Ivan Gnezdilov.
At the first World Championship Butakov won a bronze in the individual race in the unofficial team standings of the USSR took the second place.
Biathlon federation of Russia was established in 1992. At the moment, their representative offices in 49 regions of Russia. Due to the fact that this sport requires certain weather conditions, it is not considered to be the most widespread. While actively gaining popularity among fans, thanks in part to a fascinating television.
The first president of the Federation of biathlon Russia became Evgeny Novikov. In 1995 it was replaced by the legendary four-time Olympic champion Alexander Tikhonov, who held the position for more than ten years. In 2008, he became president instead of billionaire Mikhail Prokhorov. Since 2014 the federation headed by Alexander Kravtsov.
An important milestone in the development of biathlon was the year 1978 when the small-caliber weapon replaced the large-caliber. In the same year he was first held the World Cup.
In the first years of the program were the only sprint, individual and relay race. In 1980, the rules have corrected by removing the two-minute penalty. Now, miss on the turn was not fatal. Generally, the biathlon is very different from many other sports is just the fact that it is not afraid to change to please the public. The development of this discipline is only in favor.
Since 1980, the women's relay included in the program of international competitions.
Impact of International Biathlon Union
Formal separation of the biathlon federation of modern pentathlon took place only in 1992. International Biathlon Union was established, which led the biathlon today to such success and popularity. In 1997, included a new discipline in the World Cup program. They were the pursuit and mass start (the entertainment and the audience favorite of the race).
Biathlon is developing in the direction of increasing the number of participants. Held mixed relay, junior world and European championships.
In biathlon athletes always run freestyle. Length ski biathlon athlete depends on growth. Their maximum length is not limited, and they should not be shorter than the growth of the athlete, which is subtracted from the 4 cm. Their minimum width of 4 centimeters, and the total weight is about 800 grams.
Used for firing a rifle, a minimum weight is 3, 5 kg. While running, it is attached at the back. In this case, a ban on semi-automatic or automatic weapons. When an athlete comes to the shooting range, the distance to the target is 50 meters. It is interesting that until 1977 it was considerably more - about 100 meters. This explains why such a large number of misses at the time.
After each hit the target valve closed white. This allows the participant to instantly evaluate the result of his shot. In recent years the targets were varied. It might be cracking at the plate and hit balloons. The diameter of each target 115 millimeters. When the athlete shoots standing, counted from entering into any zone circle, and when it is, it is only in the center circle diameter of 45 millimeters.
All races, except for races, the participant only five shots. In the case of a miss, he is obliged to run as many penalty loops, how many targets left uncovered. During the torch relay in biathlon, there are three additional rounds, each of which is charged separately. If after using all the additional features of the target is still not impressed, the participant is sent to the penalty loop.
The Russian national team in biathlon
In recent years, highly regarded in world sport and women's and men's national team of Russia's biathlon. In the overall standings, Russian biathletes Cup 2017/2018 season's world there are in leadership positions. For example, among men at the moment occupies the fourth place Anton Shipulin, second only to the Croat Jacob Fukue, Norwegian Johannes Be and Frenchman Martin Fourcade.
In the women's team this season, the situation is not so well. Not a single representative of the Russian national team in the top ten world ranking no.
Russian biathletes are not just different, and at the Olympic Games. According to the two gold medals they won Sergey Chepikov, Evgeny Ustyugov, Olga Zaitseva, Svetlana Ishmuratova Olga Medvedtseva (dust), and Anfisa Reztsova BOGALIY-Titovetc.
In this case, the records belong to the biathlon at the moment other athletes. For example, the achievement for most wins in a single season until recently belonged to the legendary Norwegian Ole Einar Bjoerndalen. But in his last season he surpassed the Frenchman Martin Fourcade, who was able to win 13 races in a single season.