Smokeless powder history invention composition, application. Hunting smokeless gunpowder "Falcon"
Gunpowder is an indispensable element which is used for ammunition equipment. Without the invention of the substance of humanity will never be found on firearms.
But very few people know the history of the appearance of gunpowder. And it turns out, was invented by accident. And then for a long time used only to launch fireworks.
The advent of gunpowder
This material was invented in China. The exact date of the appearance of black powder, which is still called, and black, no one knows. But it happened at about 8 in. BC. At that time, China's emperors are very concerned their own health. They wanted to live a long time, and even dreamed of immortality. To do this, the emperors encouraged the works of Chinese alchemists who tried to open a magic elixir. Of course, we all know that the miraculous fluid mankind has not received. But the Chinese, showing its tenacity, conducted many experiments, mixing with the wide variety of substances. They do not lose hope to fulfill the imperial order. But sometimes the testing ended in an unpleasant incident. One of them occurred after the alchemists mixed saltpetre, charcoal and some other components. Unknown history researcher at the trial of a new substance was flames and smoke. The claims are recorded even in the Chinese annals.
For a long period of time gunpowder was used only for fireworks. However, the Chinese have gone further. They stabilized the formula of the substance and learned how to apply it to the explosions.
In the 11th century. It was invented first gunpowder weapons in history. These were military rockets, which ignited the powder first, and then it occurred explosion. We used this gunpowder weapons under siege walls. However, in those days it has on the enemy greater psychological than striking impact. The most powerful weapon, which invented the ancient Chinese scholars, were the clay hand bomb. They exploded and showered all around the shrapnel shards.
The Conquest of Europe
Chinese gunpowder began to spread around the world. In Europe, he has appeared in the 11th century. He was brought here Arab merchants who sold the rocket for fireworks. Apply this substance in combat to become the Mongols. They used black powder in the capture of the previously impregnable castles of knights. Mongols has been used quite a simple but at the same time efficient technology. They did under the walls of a tunnel and lay the powder to mine. Explosions, a martial weapons easily breached even the thickest barriers.
In 1118 in Europe there were the first gun. They were used by the Arabs of Spain capture. In 1308, gun powder played a crucial role in the capture of the fortress of Gibraltar. Then they were used by the Spaniards, who have adopted these weapons from the Arabs. After that, the production of powder guns started throughout Europe. I was no exception, and Russia.
Black powder up to the end of the 19th century. charged mortars and food, flint rifles and muskets and other weapons of war. But at the same time, scientists did not stop their research on the improvement of this substance. Examples include University experiments that established a rational ratio of powder mixture components. History remembers a failed attempt to replace deficient nitrate chlorate salt, which was undertaken by Claude Louis Bertholet. The result of this change were the numerous explosions. Chlorate salt or sodium chlorate, was very active oxidizer.
A new milestone in the history of porohodeliya started since 1832 was then the French chemist A. Bracon first got nitrocellulose or priroksilin. This material is an ester of nitric acid and cellulose. The latter molecule is a large number of hydroxyl groups, which react with nitric acid.
pyroxyle properties have been investigated by many scientists. So, in 1848, Russian engineers AA Fadeev and GI Hess, it was found that this substance in its capacity several times greater than the Chinese invented gunpowder. There were even attempts to use the gun-cotton to fire. However, they have failed, as the porous and friable pulp had a non-uniform composition and burned with changeable speed. Attempts to compress guncotton also failed. In substance often flares up during this process.
Getting pyroxylin powder
Who invented smokeless powder? In 1884, the French chemist Jean Viel-based gun-cotton was created monolithic material. This is the first in the history of mankind smokeless powder. To obtain the investigator used a pyroxylin ability to increase in volume, while in the mixture of alcohol and ether. This yielded a soft mass which, after compressed, it was made of plate or tape, and then was dried. The bulk of the solvent at the same time disappears. Slight its volume remained at gun-cotton. He continued to function as a plasticizer.
This mass is the basis of smokeless powder. Its volume in this explosive is about 80-95%. Unlike previously obtained cellulose pyroxylin powder showed their ability to burn with a steady rate strictly according to the layers. That's why he was so far used for small arms.
The advantages of the new substance
White powder Vielle was a real revolutionary discovery in the field of small arms fire. And the reasons for this fact, there were several:
1. The powder gave almost no smoke, whereas previously used explosive after a few shots fired significantly narrows the field of view of a soldier. By emerging the smoke when using black powder could spare only strong gusts of wind. Furthermore, the revolutionary invention allows not grant fighter position.
2. Gunpowder Vielle allows the bullet to fly at a higher rate. Because of this, its trajectory was more direct, which significantly increases accuracy and its range, which was about 1000 m.
3. In connection with large capacity characteristics, smokeless gunpowder was used in smaller amounts. Ammunition become much easier, allowing increase their number when moving army.
4. Equipment guncotton cartridges allow them to operate even when wet. Ammunition was based black powder, must be protected from moisture.
Gunpowder Vielle was successfully tested in the Lebel rifle, which immediately has adopted the French army. We hurried to practice the invention, and other European countries. The first of them were Germany and Austria. New weapons in these states was introduced in 1888
Soon researchers have received a new substance for military weapons. They became the nitroglycerin smokeless powder. Its other name - ballistite. The basis for such smokeless powder as viewed nitrocellulose. However, its amount to 56-57 percent has been reduced in the explosive. As the plasticizer in the present case was a liquid glyceryl trinitrate. This powder was very powerful, and it is worth saying that it still finds its application in missile troops and artillery.
At the end of the 19th century. his recipe smokeless explosive suggested Mendeleev. Russian scientist has found a way to get the soluble nitrocellulose. It he called pirokollodiem. The resulting material was allocated maximum amount of gaseous products. Pyrocollodion successfully tested in different caliber guns, which were held on the sea site. However, not only this is the merit of Lomonosov to military affairs and the manufacture of gunpowder. The technology of production of explosives they had made an important improvement. The scientist proposed to dewater the nitrocellulose is not drying, and using alcohol. This made the production of gunpowder safer. Furthermore, it was the quality of the nitrocellulose is increased, as with alcohol elute therefrom less stable products.
The modern use of
Currently, the powder, which is based on nitrocellulose used in modern semi-automatic and automatic weapons. Unlike black powder it leaves virtually no solids in the gun barrel of combustion products. It is allowed to carry out an automatic weapon using the overcharging of a large number of moving parts and mechanisms.
The different varieties of smokeless powder are the main part of the propellants that are used in small arms. They are so widespread that, as a rule, the word "powder" refers to a smokeless it. The substance, invented by the ancient Chinese alchemists used only signal rocket launcher, grenade launcher and some cartridges designed for shotguns.
With regard to the hunting environment, there is made use Nitric kind of smokeless powder. Only sometimes find their application nitroglycerin species, but very popular, they do not enjoy.
What are the components is an explosive used in the hunting business? The composition of smokeless powder has nothing to do with his smoky views. Basically it consists of gun-cotton. Its in the explosive is 91-96 percent. In addition, a hunting powder contains from 1, 2 to 5% of volatile substances such as water, alcohol and ether. To increase the stability during storage is included here from 1 to 1 5 percent diphenylamine stabilizer. Slow burning propellant grains outer layers phlegmatizers. Their is from 2 to 6 percent in smokeless gun powder. A minor portion (0, 2-0, 3%) is flame-retarding additive and graphite.
Pyroxylin used for the production of smokeless powder is processed oxidant which is based spirtoefirnaya mixture. The end result is a homogeneous jelly-like substance. The resulting mixture was subjected to machining. The result is a grained structure substance whose color varies from yellow-brown to pure black. Sometimes within the same batch possible different shade of powder. To impart a uniform color processing performed powdered graphite mixture. This process allows the coalescence and leveling grains.
Smokeless powder is distinguished ability uniform gassing and burning. This, in turn, when changing the size fraction allows control and regulate the combustion process.
Among the attractive features of smokeless gunpowder note the following:
- low hygroscopicity and insolubility in water;
- and purity greater effect than analogue smoky;
- retention of properties even at high humidity;
- the possibility of drying;
- lack of smoke after the shot, which is produced with a relatively low sound.
However, it should be borne in mind that a white powder:
- highlights in the shot, carbon monoxide, which is dangerous to humans;
- a negative response to temperature changes;
- promotes more rapid wear of the arms of producing a high temperature in the barrel;
- must be stored in an airtight container in connection with the probability of its weathering;
- it has a limited shelf life;
- can be a fire hazard at a high temperature;
- is not used in weapons, the passport which indicates this.
The oldest Russian powder
This explosive equip hunting cartridges since 1937 Gunpowder "Falcon" has a sufficiently large capacity corresponding to the international standards developed. It should be noted that the composition of the substance was modified in 1977. This was due to the establishment of stricter rules for this type of explosive elements.
Gunpowder "Falcon" is recommended for use by novice hunters who prefer to make a separate charge cartridges. After all, this substance is capable to forgive them the error with the sample. Gunpowder "Falcon" is used by many domestic manufacturers of ammunition, such as "Polieks", "Vetter", "Nitrogen" and others.