Modern Pentathlon: what sports are included?
Modern pentathlon is a variety of sports-round, which consists of riding, fencing, shooting, swimming and cross-country. The name of the sport was back in 1948. It was at this time in London was founded by the International Union of Modern Pentathlon, which was renamed the International Federation in 1988. It brings together more than 100 national federations, which include Modern Pentathlon Federation and Russia. In the program of the Olympic Games this kind of sport is present since 1912 and the world championships are held on it since 1949.
Many people believe that the modern pentathlon was born and began to develop not so long ago, when in fact the idea of a sports complex, which will include training possession sword, gun and jumps on a horse, came back in the XIX century. Initially in Sweden and then in other countries, this sport has been used exclusively for the training of officers.
In 1912, an unusual sports complex, known as the "officer's pentathlon", entered in the Olympics, and later became an integral part thereof. Already in 1947, the sports complex "officer pentathlon" was called "modern pentathlon", immediately after which it was organized the International Telecommunication Union.
The modern program of the Olympic Games is slightly different from the 1912 program year. Initially the fencing bout duration was 3 minutes, now - only a minute, and the jumping distance is close to 600 meters.
To date, the athletes preferred more modern program. Pentathlon, species of which are alternated in a random order, performed in a single day and always ends up running or riding. Student record system includes regulations in 1000 points for each type of all-round, except for horse riding, as the maximum amount of points for it is 1 100. On the basis of the results shown, the judge may take away or add additional athlete glasses.
Russia and other countries of modern pentathlon does not register high scores and records, because these figures affect individual factors. Among them: the level of training of the horse, qualified contenders in fencing, as well as the profile of the terrain in cross-country.
Modern Pentathlon: rules
As I mentioned above, in the all-around includes five types:
The participants earn points, which are given for each individual species. The starting order in the race is determined by counting points for all other species. That is the very first kick off the party, which in total scored the most points in the other four types.
Now we should get better acquainted with the types of all-round, which are included in the modern pentathlon. They are described in detail below.
Each athlete has 4, 5 mm air gun, from which it can make exactly 20 shots (one for each target). For all participants in the shooting is made with the same position - at a distance of 10 meters from the target. Making the shot is allowed in just 40 seconds - during this time the athlete must catch a good aim and shoot. Each target consists of exactly 10 rings, one of which is the center circle. Rings are numerical values from 1 to 10. In the case where a bullet hit a strip separating two adjacent ring member is larger counted result. Shooting is standing, holding a gun with only one hand. In no case can not use any tools to help maintain the hand with a gun. Despite the fact that the weight of the gun can not be more than 1 500 grams, to keep it even in quite hard for 20-30 seconds.
Each participant is given the opportunity for 2, 5 minutes to get acquainted with the target and ready to shoot. If the weapon refused during the competition, the athlete have exactly five minutes to repair it, and then he is given more time to continue shooting. If the shooter said he was at the time the shot prevented the opponent, he will be able to ask for permission for one extra shot.
The result is not considered by the usual points, but in small. That is equal to 172 infantry 1000 credits.
200m athlete must swim freestyle. According heats participants are divided in accordance with the rating. The pentathlon people compete only with a stopwatch, because the test points it brings the time, not the victory itself. Thus, the 2 minutes and 30 seconds are equal to 1000 a scoring points.
If, during the swimming competitions pyatiborets allows two false start, or does not have time to touch the wall, he issued a fine 40 points.
Party shall fight every pentathlete. As it is known, provides for fencing battle with swords. The entire fight lasts only one minute, and the winner is the one who first stabbed the enemy. If none of the opponent did not manage to get a shot, they are lost. In this type of 1000 test points gets the party, which won 70% of all fights. As in other species, for violation penalties are awarded:
- for turning his back removed 10 points;
- for committing dangerous acts deducted 10 points or the athlete is disqualified.
Each athlete must run a distance 3000 meters, which is 4 laps of 750 meters. That difference, which is obtained from the results of the four species, transferred to the second. The very first beginning cross party who earned the largest number of points, and thereafter, after a certain number of seconds, starts the second, third and so on.
All riders are divided into two groups, then divide among themselves the horses, what helps them lots. Each participant is kneaded, meets a horse and prepares for driving for 20 minutes.
The distance that must be overcome to everyone, ranging from 350 to 450 meters. In this interval there are 12 obstacles of varying heights. Depending on the length of the path of the riders are required to finish within a certain time period.
In the early arrival every athlete has a 1100 test points, which are deducted from fines for each violation:
- 3 points - for each delayed second;
- 30 points - for unclimbed obstacle;
- 60 points - for the fall (for the rider - when a competitor and his horse are alone, and for a horse - when it touches the ground croup);
- 40 points - for disobeying horse athlete while overcoming obstacles.
If the horse three times refused to pass the obstacles, the participant must move on to the next. Before driving, each rider has the opportunity to walk along the highway and read it.
Modern Pentathlon development
In the Soviet Union, the first competition was held in 1947, and since 1953 the country began to hold the championship every year. The leading representatives of the domestic pentathlon are:
- Igor Novikov (champion in 1956 in Melbourne and 1964 in Tokyo).
- Pavel Lednev (champion in 1972 in Munich and 1980 in Moscow).
- Anatoly Starostin (the champion in the individual competition, 1980 in Moscow).
- Dmitry Svatkovsky (champion in Sydney 2000).
- Andrey Moiseev (champion in 2004 in Athens and 2008 in Beijing).
Despite the difficult conditions, these people honorably defended their home country and around the world have shown their strength, endurance and desire to win.