Long Jump: Lead technique. The world record in long jump
After reading this article, you will learn how to correctly perform the long jump with a running start, and from the place, as well as any records today are installed in these sports, and what are the standards for high school students and the TRP rates. Let's start with a description of the jump with a running start, since it is more popular today.
a running jump: what is necessary to achieve a good result?
In spite of the apparent simplicity of movements, running jump in length presents a number of serious claims. Without them it would be impossible to achieve the desired result. Determining factor in the achievement of this type of athletics good results is the high level of agility, dynamism, strength and speed. Before jumper task is not only to accelerate as much as possible at the time of setting his feet, but also the more complex requirements - transformed in the process of repulsion in the vertical speed of the horizontal. This requires a high level of strength and speed. Due to the speed achieved possibility of advancement in the horizontal plane as quickly as possible, and jumping expresses the ability to throw the athlete's body in the vertical plane.
The components of the jump
Long jump consists of the following four parts: run, repulsion, flight and landing phase. Treadmill fitness level, as well as the ability to gain maximum speed of an athlete is determined by the length of the run. Long jump men should carry a running no more than 40-45 m, and the women -. 30-35 m The speed and the length of it with increased fitness increases. The length of the run-up in children is significantly reduced. It is equal in primary school children of 15-20 meters, when it comes to this form of athletics as the long jump. Standards for high school students are very different, as the length of the run, which is 25-30 meters.
Two initial position used at the beginning of the run: 1) when the control mark of one athlete's foot is ahead of the other; 2) preliminary motion (light running or walking). With a gradual or fast increasing speed run is performed. Technique long jump means that the rate should be maximum at time repulsive body performing a jump must be in a vertical position and it is possible to move the repulsion without excess voltage.
The main errors observed in the run-up technique can be considered the following: running, "sitting", or with a strong forward lean of the body, which leads to retraction of the pelvis. This, in turn, reduces the quality of the repulsive: there is a lack of body pushing, excessive muscle tension and the imposition of a small forward athlete's foot. In the process of studying the art of rhythmic and rapid run-up should ensure the constancy of the run length and number of steps, the running speed must remain constant and do not slow down in front of the repulsion. There should be no excessive increase or decrease in the length of the last steps. Therefore, in the course of employment it is advisable to be used on a running track benchmarks.
leg while pushing off is placed on the bar. This is done to rake in a quick motion from top to bottom and back in relation to the body. The foot is placed in relation to the ground is always down and almost straight ahead, with the extensor muscles should be stretched. Then there is the inertia weight under the influence of bending his legs in the joints, and then - straightening it. Centrifugal leg with the rectification shall be made jogging movement from the hips forward and up. Long jump goes that is carried into the side and back a little of the same name hand, while the other - forward and upward and somewhat inward. Bit unbent knee centrifugal arm. Torso immediately after emergence is approximately the same position as it was after repulsion. Your arms should be slightly lowered. They maintain the balance of the whole body. This position is called "flight to step". It goes on for more than a quarter of the total length of the jump. Centrifugal hand after the "departure in step" falls down, then jog pulled up to her knees and a jumper close to the chest. When the repulsive typical errors are: wrong direction effort athlete which is caused by incorrect inclination of the head (backward or forward) and torso when the repulsion occurs; premature tightening jumper shaking leg; a small range of movement, exercise free limbs, as well as early rearrangement athlete in flight, which is caused by excessive voltage his movements.
jumper, landing, sends arms down and back. The athlete extends the knee joints in the feet and brings them forward as far as possible. Long jump landing ends: legs flexion in the joints, torso bent forward, and finally exiting the pits or athlete falling to the side.
An important role in achieving the best results playing, among other elements, and correct the landing of jumper. Improvement and the assimilation of the element should be given to technical training considerable attention. It should be understood at the correct landing is the completion of the flight, in which the athlete feet touched the ground as far as possible in front of the center of gravity of his body, but without falling back and loss of balance. At the same airspeed extinguished without jerks and jolts. It is necessary to pay attention to the deep and soft landing in the pit with sand.
Three landing method
We can distinguish three main ways landing. The most common method is through a deep squat. Another - with the deflection of the squat deep, which is carried out through a roll socks by removal of the pelvis forward. The third way is considered to be very profitable - it is landing with a throw forward - aside.
Three ways to commit a jump
Long jump with a running start can be carried out in the following ways, depending on the manufactured nature of the jumper in flight movements: "caved in", "bent legs", "scissors". "Bending the legs" - a technique in which the athlete takes the body almost upright, his legs bent and his hands jumper extended forward and slightly down or up. In-flight athlete lock its position with bent legs. "Caved in" - a process in which the long jump with a takeoff performed with perfect motion, like running on air. A spring, wherein the body is upright. Versatile circular hand motions support the whole body balance, as well as contribute to the rhythmic work done in the air feet. By implementing a jump way "scissors", the athlete in step position after takeoff changes the position of the feet, then pulls up the limb, which was behind after the change, followed by displacement forward in both legs for a touchdown, or he makes 2 full steps (position of the lower extremities, double change) and 1 addl, while pulling up the leg to the rear. The main task when all of these ways is to keep the balance in flight, as well as to ensure the most favorable conditions for landing. Carrying out selection method of the jump, you should pay attention to the sporting preparedness jumper features of physical development, as well as coordination and power quality. Top athletes are now jumping a running long way "scissors". The reason is that this method is a kind of natural continuation takeoff. Its use contributes to a more joined-body transition into the flight. However, for the development of this method needs a lot of work on the mastery of rhythmic and rapid run, combined with repulsion up.
The training is recommended to master all these techniques of body movement in flight. This is explained by the fact that the knowledge of the basic jump options contributes to the improvement of orientation in space and coordination. Should begin to study these methods with repulsion from the ground and only the implementation of jumps with a full run-up, you can start from the bar. You must comply with the general rule, which consists in the fact that it is necessary to go from simple to complex. Therefore, it is recommended first to get acquainted with the easiest way to jump - "bent legs".
Sector for jumping
It must be said that the sector for jumping usually equipped pit (the length should be at least 10 meters, width - not less than 2, 75 meters, and the depth of - at least 0, 5 meters). In the pit is sand for landing, as well as a block of wood, intended for repulsion (its length is 1, 21-1, 22 cm, width - 19, 8-20, 2 cm, thickness - 0, 1 m). This bar mounted flush with the runway (width - 1, 22 m, length - at least 40 m) and sand.
The number of attempts and the measurement result of
Each attempt athletes perform in turn (a total of 6 attempts). No more than one and a half minutes is given for the execution of each jump. The winner is determined by the best result shown by him from all six attempts. Tape made measurements. FFL is set at this point closest to the bar, which was retained by any part of the athlete's body in the well with sand. The result is considered in whole centimeters, while rounding takes place downward.
We distinguish the cases in which the jump is not counted:
1) if a participant has run to the side of the bar or therethrough;
2) if he stepped on the measuring line;
3) if the athlete pushed two legs;
4) if it touches the ground during the jump to the pit;
5) If the diver used a flip jump.
Classes to train as a jump technique
Training long jump should start with the following activities: running jumps in height, sprint, shot put. This will improve the general fitness athlete, as well as increase the level of preparedness of the power and speed involved. Ability to run fast is necessary for mastering takeoff. However, it should develop the strength required for a powerful repulsion. It is also desirable to achieve maximum density classes to perform some special jumps and jumping exercises.
The jump from his seat and its parts
Long jump from place primarily used as training. Nevertheless, the competition is held by them, as well as the triple jump, taken from the place (it will also tell you). Long jump in height from place also carried out as a control test that helps determine the strength and jumping legs.
jump technique, taken from the place is divided into the following components:
- preparation for the repulsion; - directly repulsion;
- the final stage - the landing.
jump with space technology
Athlete, carrying out the preparations for the repulsion, coming to the line, from which it is produced. He puts a foot shoulder width or slightly narrower it, then raises his arms upward and slightly backward, arching at the same time in the lower back, as well as getting up on his toes. Then gradually, but at the same time pretty quickly diver puts his hands downward and backward, falling at the same time on the whole foot, bending at the hip and knee joints of the feet, leaning forward so that the front feet were his shoulders, and over the toes was hip.
Laid back arms should be slightly bent at the elbows. Sportsman, without stopping in this position, moves directly to repulsion. It is important to start at a time when the body is performing the jump still goes down by inertia, ie it itself is still moving down, but already there is leg extension in the hip joints. Hands at the same time quickly and actively brought forward and slightly upward in the direction of the jump. After that, the legs in the knees unbent, there is flexion of the ankle joints. Repulsion is completed at the moment when the feet come off the ground.
After that jumper straightens his whole body. He stretched as a string, and then bends in the hip and knee joints of the feet, then pulls them towards your chest. In this case, the hands are removed backwards and down, and then the athlete straightens his legs in the knee joint in order to bring the foot forward to carry out the landing. Jumper at the moment of contact the place of landing legs actively puts forth his hands, bend both legs at the knees and pulls to the place of the landing basin. This completes the phase of flight. It must be elastic leg flexion, performed with resistance. Jumper after stopping rectified. He makes two steps forward, and then goes to the place of landing. Thus concludes the long jump from their seats.
taken from the place the triple jump
Equipment of its implementation is divided into the following stages:
- 1st repulsion athlete on two legs;
- its flight in the 1st step;
- 2nd repulsion;
- flying in the 2nd step;
- 3rd repulsion;
- and finally, landing on both feet.
In the triple jump leg striping is done alternately, ie with both feet - to the left, and then - to the right, to the left again, and then two. Just as in the jump from the place runs off from the 2 legs. After that, an athlete, bending your leg at the knee joint, brings it forward, shin should be directed slightly forward and down. The second athlete's foot lingers behind, slightly bent with the knee joint (the so-called flight to Step). Then the jumper puts on the ground located in front of the leg, "raking" staging. The second leg is simultaneously displayed forward swinging motion, helping to implement the repulsion of one foot.
Then repeated flight into step, but with the other leg. Similarly accomplished and third repulsion. Jumper in the third flight to the centrifugal pulls jogging leg, bending it at the knee, and then performs a touchdown, bringing your knees to your chest (very similar to the landing is performed in the pole location).
jump world record in length
Long jump, as you know - it is an Olympic sport. Athletes for a long time could not set a new world record for the long jump. Back in 1991, Mike Powell became the record by jumping in Tokyo with a running length of 8, 95 m. Among women, a new world record did not appear even longer. Galina Chistyakov from the Soviet Union jumped 11 June 1988 7, 52 m. Until now, the best are both the result, anyone with the time failed to set a new record of the world.
Long jump from their seats, too, has its champions. Modern record long jump from place belongs to Chen Hsi Ping, the Chinese athletes. He jumped in Beijing in January 2010, the 4 th to 8 cm. Exercise is included once in the Olympics. Out of competition was then Ray Urey, American. He set a world record for the long jump from their seats, jumping 3, 47 meters. he also managed to jump to a height of 1, 65 m. This athlete won three Olympic Games, held in 1900, 1904 and 1908.
School regulations and standards TRP long jump
For high-school students are set the following rates jump from the takeoff. For girls:
- 10 class: 360 cm in five 340 - 300 at four and - in three;
- Class 11: 380 - on five, 340 - on the four and 310 - in the top three.
For boys, they are as follows:
- Grade 10: 440 - to five, 400 - 340 at four and - in three;
- Grade 11: 460 - on five, 420 - on the four and 370 - in the top three.
TRP standard specifies the long jump from their seats. Norms for men aged 18 to 24 years old is 215 (bronze badge), 230 (silver), 240 (gold). In the age category of 25 to 29 years, for comparison, 225 - bronze, 230 - silver and 240 - gold. For girls from 18 to 24 years - respectively 170, 180 and 195, between the ages of 25 to 29 years - 165, 175 and 190. At this distance must be performed a long jump from their seats. Standards were given only to form some idea of how far it is necessary to be able to jump. TRP norms involve other age categories.