Buffoonery in Russia
The first thing that comes to mind when you hear the word buffoon - a harmless, stupid people, but pretty funny. But the real role of jester in the history of mankind was probably one of the most important roles at every European court and in Russia, as well. Among them were people of very clever and shrewd, sharp tongue, under the guise of fun and tomfoolery, exposing the true court fools. On the fate of the famous clowns when Russian rulers in the Tsarist and Soviet times, etc. - in the review.
The first evidence of jesters appeared at the turn of the XIII-XIV centuries, when it became the fashion to keep the "fools" crowned with the people and the nobles. A special development institute court jesters was in XV-XVI century.
Traditionally clowns dressed in bright clothes and hats with bells, three long end of which is a symbolic donkey ears and tail. Since this animal was an attribute of "donkey process of" early Middle Ages in Rome. In the hands of fools wore rattles in the form of sticks, which attaches to the end of the bull bubbles to pour peas. In Russia, besides clowns adorn themselves pea straw, hence, the expression - "buffoon."
All the European royal and aristocratic courts provided themselves with various types of clowns, sometimes in large quantities, which are skillfully able to play music, juggle, show acting skills.
"Jester knew how to do everything and do not know how anything. Jester had power even over the king, but he was ridiculed and even last ragged beggar. Jester - is the dark side of things, the part of the iceberg that is hidden under the water, the shadow cast by each. "
And since freedom of speech in those days was practically absent, the approximate monarchs could not openly criticize the king, who in turn could not always afford to criticism towards the very influential nobles.
for them it makes fools usually veiled and subtle hint. If they crossed the border of what is permitted, then it is punished talkative fools, sometimes very cruel.
Clowns in Russia
I do not stay aside from the fashion jesters and Russia, only here it came a little later. However, the very buffoonery in Russia already had deep roots and a long tradition. For example, a well-known character of folk tales Ivan the Fool, which is often contrasted with the King, as the owner of a certain secret knowledge.
"Fools" allows more than anyone else, under the guise of empty talk, ridiculing vices and lies, to say what the other was strictly forbidden. And it is always very appreciated by the Russian people.
In the court of Ivan the Terrible, the role of jester served as the prince's son, who became famous in the people a special wit and sagacity - Osip nail. When the king and his entourage had to enter from the suburban wards in Moscow Palace, then in front of all on a huge bull in robes embroidered with gold, and a cap with donkey ears and silver bells went Osip nail himself.
One day the king and jester squabbled: Osip allowed himself to doubt kinship with Tsar Ivan Roman emperors. For which he tried to douse clown face in boiling soup. However, Osip dodged and wanted to escape, but the knife autocrat overtook him. I mourned the end of the story. King, coming to his senses, called the doctor and the state only had to Nail death: "God only once puts into man's soul, and the stake she left him, then no one has to call her back," - he said to the king.
Peter I from childhood accustomed to jesters and dwarfs, is an integral part of court life. And as clowns at the Russian court often become natives of the elite of Russian society, the king often arranged various ritual celebrations. So, in 1700, Peter I, personally betrothed Raissa, ordered to play their mock wedding jester - Jacob Turgenev, "noble warriors and Kiev Colonel." This wedding was accompanied by a lot of ridicule over the old customs. The very same king in the form of a naval officer was directly involved in the tonsure beards eminent boyars and cutting off the sleeves and hem coats boyars.
Jacob was the tragic end of Turgenev, who died in 45 years of age at the time of brutal fun vsepyaneyshego cathedral in the village Kozhuhov where Peter carried out violent entertainment. With members of the "cathedral" and the king of revelers celebrated all their victories, he arranged Gras processions and clownish holidays.
When the royal court of Peter I also lived a few dozen dwarf and the dwarf, who were dressed in the European manner, and could at any time to entertain the emperor.
Among them was a serf of small stature Yakima Wolves, nicknamed the Mosquito, which is the recognition of Peter himself, rescued him during a riot musketeers, warning of the danger. For the sake of fun in 1710 the king forcibly married to an elderly dwarf Komar Praskovya Feodorovna. Thus Peter wanted to "dilute" its own special breed of dwarfs in Russia.
Tales of how Ivan Balakirev to the court was
The most famous clown in the history of Russia was the son of a nobleman Kostroma - Ivan Balakirev - associate, chief advisor to the Emperor and the charge d'affairs of the heart of Catherine I. The true clown, he will have later when the Empress Anna Ivanovna.
From young age he was determined to serve in the Preobrazhensky Regiment. Then one day, standing on a hot day in the guard, Ivan decided to take a dip in the river. However, stripped naked and hopped into the water, noticed that a post is approaching the king and his entourage. Realizing that for leaving the post not to demolish his head, Ivan bullet popped up on the shore. And so, when the king was very close, time to dress was no more. Then Ivan quickly donned a wig and cocked hat, hastily threw bandolier over his shoulder and took his gun, stood, saluting. On the indignant question of Peter I Balakirev, despite the desperate situation, remaining wet and naked, without batting an eye, he replied that "explored the post and studied the situation in the river." Peter laughed heartily and took him to court.
Trinity jesters (top to bottom): Ivan Balakirev, Prince NF Volkonsky, and Prince Golitsyn MA (standing bent).
Balakirev during his service at the court of his long tongue do not just have to try and imperial favor and disgrace. He was arrested in the case of a love affair of Catherine, was sentenced to 60 Batog shock, poisoning into exile, from which he returned to the Empress Anna Ivanovna, enrolled in a state of "fools". By the way, in the state of the Empress he was enrolled many disgraced noblemen.
A few years later, after resigning, Balakirev settled on his estate, and among the neighbors will be known as the gloomy, taciturn man. And after the death of the person the court jester will acquire a lot of legends and stories, and the true facts of his biography will not be as much.
Ian Lacoste was a Jew, a native of Portugal. Met him in Hamburg, Peter I invited John to Russia, where he was baptized Peter Dorofeich. Lacoste spoke several languages and dealing with the sovereign, "enjoyed church theological casuistry and rhetorical devices, bringing its judgments to unexpected ridiculous conclusions." Extraordinary wit jester extremely impressed by Russian emperor, so that he gave Lacoste wild uninhabited tiny island Gohland in the Gulf and the title of "King of Samoyed." Later, after Peter's death, Ian Lacoste became the jester of Anna Ivanovna and Duke Biron.
An exceptional mind and a sharp tongue Lacoste brought immense popularity. So, having a legal battle, the jester often used to go to the office. The judge reviewing his case finally said: "Because of your business, I must confess, I do not see a good end for you." - "So you, sir, a good score," - he answered the jester, submitting to the judge a few ducats. Life Lacoste was tightfisted and many owe already, on his deathbed, confessing, Jester said the priest: "I ask God to prolong my life at least for a while, until the debts will pay." Those taking the words at face value, he replied: "The desire exceedingly praiseworthy Trust that the Lord will hear it and maybe perform.". Lacoste grinned and whispered quietly located next to a friend: "If the Lord really used showed such grace - I would never have died."
Pietro Mira Pedrillo was from Naples. In Russia also came as a singer and musician. At the court of Anna Ivanovna entertained guests playing the violin. He soon became her favorite clown, whom the Empress loved to spill over in the cards. By the way, Pedrillo in Russian folklore has become the prototype of the image known to all of us Petrushka.
Needless to say, the famously fun Russian monarchs, sometimes even at the cost of human lives.
And as we can see, despite the cheerful and full life at the court jesters fate it is sometimes not fun.
The main jester Stalin
Cockscomb try on many artists, musicians, politicians ... Archetype jester has always been extremely difficult and in its structure and functionality, but its role varied from amusement of people, sometimes to the state administration.
Nikita Khrushchev in his time, at sufficiently senior levels, in the immediate environment of Stalin played the role of such a "fool", and for that he got away with a lot. Khrushchev enthusiasm laughed at every joke and Stalin hopak shake a leg with a wave of the hand, "the father of nations" during feasts.
Khrushchev took off his clown mask and took a high position in the state, though not many appreciated his "sparkling humor." For example, Mao Zedong responding to criticism, promised to send to Beijing a coffin with the body of Stalin, and talking with senior officials from America, said on the forehead: "We will bury you." Soviet people Khrushchev remembered the mass planting of corn, even on those soils that are generally not been suitable for the cultivation of this crop, and even banging his shoe on the podium at the UN General Assembly and threatening speech: "We will show you get off!", And of course a huge lots of anecdotes piled on Shute-secretary general.
Caution! Jester goes!