Abandoned city-fortress in the center of Europe
• Abandoned fortress city in Central Europe
Why Napoleon in 1812 went to Moscow, not in the capital of St. Petersburg? Historians have different answers to this question. According to one version, it was decided in the Russian city of Dinaburg ...
It was then called the Latvian Daugavpils. Standing on the bank of Dvina-Daugava on the way "from the Vikings to the Greeks", the city of old had a serious geopolitical importance. It is here, on the high bank of the river in 1810 by order of Tsar Alexander I began to build a huge fortress - the latest fashion, born of the development of artillery, that is the bastion format. Basis bastion - star squat fortifications, the length of which amounted to more than 5 kilometers. The thickness of the main shaft was 22 m, height of 8 meters. The area within the living area of the shaft was 1100 on 890 m Total area of fortification -. 150 m.
Kind of a fortress on the German spy shots of the Second World War:
It was built quickly, though, but on the conscience. To ensure stability of fortification, the base deepens shafts sheet of pure zinc, which is essential for removal of water drains through the stone. It planned to install in the fortress 595 guns, but this plan never was never executed.
By the time of the onset of the French troops, defending the road to St. Petersburg fortress was only half ready. But this did not prevent the garrison of 2,500 men, with only 80 guns, split in July 1812 the body of Marshal Oudinot's attack, there were about 32,000 infantry and 2400 cavalry. Crossing of the Daugava was well protected, and hence the road to St. Petersburg. Napoleon went from the known to us the way ... After the end of the bloody war (but in anticipation of the next), the work on the arrangement of the fortress continued. Haste was gone, and the city within the city (which is how you can describe this great fortress) built another 65 years. In particular, a large number of military and residential buildings were built, as well as one of the largest in the Russian military hospitals. The building was built with technical innovations - so, ventilation and heating system to use the hollow walls of the building and the windows OS are protected from dust and insects original water curtain.
Disposition of the castle by chance resembles St. Petersburg and Kronstadt. Located in safe Russian garrison Dinaburg (in 1893 renamed the Dvinsk) flourished and became a major industrial and cultural center of the North-West of the empire. The commandant's house rested while traveling to Europe and back regal persons.
The First World War ruthless rink swept Russia, and the bastion could not resist. The city passed from hand to hand - it divided the Bolsheviks, Germans ... In times of turmoil twenties, the city (renamed Daugavpils) was on the territory of an independent Republic of Latvia. But not for long - at the beginning of World War II, the city was occupied by the Germans, with the northern shaft of the fortress it was equipped with a concentration camp and a Jewish ghetto. They were tortured and killed tens of thousands of people. According to official statistics, during the war in the city killed more than 165 000 people, 70% of buildings were destroyed. The last retreating Germans had blown up a grand cathedral, the basement is caught before it captured ... After the war of independent Latvia speech is not going. The Russian fortress Russian soldiers returned. It began the painstaking work of restoration of the buildings, which housed a military garrison and builders, and, in a few years, the Daugavpilssky Higher Military Aviation Engineering School (DVVAIU), where trained technicians and engineers in various parts of the Soviet aircraft.
The school was one of the largest universities in the Soviet military. The fort buildings were equipped not only to the barracks, but also modern classrooms, a laboratory, a hospital, playgrounds, even its own training airfield.
In the fortress lived and military families. In order to accommodate everyone, even I had to build a number of five-story building. After the withdrawal of Soviet troops from the Baltic states in the early nineties, the school was relocated to Stavropol. And the independent Latvia, a new headache - what to do with a giant abandoned city-bastion, and the remaining residents in it. Not all were able or wanted to leave ...
As a result, only a few inhabitants and even more rare tourists walking the streets of the once great city-to-city.
Gromada abandoned stately buildings evoke apocalyptic thought. There is nothing sadder than a city from which people have left.
The present appearance of the five-story does not add optimism and faith in the future. It is not surprising, because such houses conceived as a replacement for wooden huts, some outhouse in which people are ridiculous whims of Providence remained for life.
is reflected from the walls faded echo of the archaic thunder of the engine traveling on the street of the old Soviet truck GAZ. It seems that he was in some sort of parallel reality.
No, not the past - for the past too few children on the streets
A pointer to the center of Buddhism, leading somewhere in the ruins of the dirt road adds a sense of the unreality of everything going on, why take Fortress as it is getting a little easier.
Sad looking at the sky barrel mounted on a gun carriage steel cannon caliber 205 mm, production in 1887.
They, guns in the city-fortress of many ...
The obvious idea - to restore the fort as a tourist destination - has been very difficult to implement.
looting 90s dilapidated buildings require too much funds for restoration.
Yes, there could be made cool lofts, hipsters start - but where to get them in such numbers in Latvia? Unfortunately, I have often heard from Latvian word that their young people prefer to work as waiters or managers of hotels in Western Europe, but would not stay at home.
The idea of making a former powder magazine Automobile and Technology Museum, too, failed.
However, the idea of restoring the defenders of the fortress recently found a sponsor. So, building water-lifting tower was restored in 2011. Yes, at the end of the 19th century, the fortress functioned water. The tower is located huge steel tank, which by means of the steam engine was filled with water from three wells located on the riverbank.
Cleaned moat from the river, bridge and recreated one of the gates.
Renovated building arsenal.
Here is the center of contemporary art, as well as a beautiful restaurant. Set lunch with national dishes costs only 4 euros, but not surprised by the price and not even generous portions - the young, the young waiters even speak in Russian, not only with tourists but also with each other. Almost the entire fortress repaired roads and sidewalks.
It is not clear that the communications with the capital, and do not need to be disassembled for all new when the building will begin to restore. Although their number and type, I can assume that it is not a quick process. Eye burns contrast boarded-up windows and fresh tiles.
The once majestic gates of the fortress and destroyed to this day ...
As the remnants of the casemates and fortifications. Somewhere out there - the entrance to underground galleries where children love to play war.
That is all that remains of the two-storey guardhouse.
It is noteworthy that in the surviving vaults outworks winters every year is the biggest in Latvia colony of bats. On the territory of the former airfield is now the training military part of the Latvian army.
The history of Dinaburg fortress, however, is not over yet ...