The story of how the pilots of the USSR taught Japanese kamikaze tactics
• The story of how the USSR taught pilots Japanese kamikaze tactics
during the Sino-Japanese War, the Soviet Union began to provide military aid to China. The secret operation was code-named "Z". So, in 1937 in China it was directed detachment of Soviet pilots, who in the spring of 1938 faced the Japanese fighters. Many believe that this event served as an example for future orders of the Japanese kamikaze, became famous during the end of World War II.
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At the beginning of the second Sino-Japanese War (1937 - 1945 year) the Japanese armed were about seven hundred aircraft, and the Chinese have no more than six. These were mainly biplane with a maximum flight speed up to 350 km / h. In turn, in 1936 in Japan, we started production of Mitsubishi fighter A5Ms that could accelerate to exorbitant at the time of 450 km / h. Due to the significant superiority in the speed of the Japanese fighters destroyed a lot more Chinese aircraft and quickly gained supremacy in the air. The situation became critical, and China was forced to ask for help from the Soviet Union.
The Japanese fighter Mitsubishi A5Ms | Photo: Corner of the sky.
September 26, 1937, Stalin began a secret operation "Z" (for example, the operation "X" in Spanish). As air support to China sent 93 aircraft, including fighter jets I-16, I-15 fighters and bombers bis Sat. Since many experienced Soviet aces fought in Spain, in China most of the pilots were sent from among the cadets of the Moscow Flight Academy had no combat experience.
the Soviet-16 | Photo: Wikipedia. The main problem was to transport planes to China. The nearest airport to the Chinese border was in Alma-Ata, and the pilots had to fly over the Himalayas. On prohibitive height, without accurate maps and at low temperatures. The first reconnaissance aircraft sent to a route, crashed into a mountain and crashed to the ground. The pilot managed to escape and after a week, frostbite, but found the locals live. Gradually, the route was drawn up, but another squadron of Soviet lowland lost in the mountains every third plane.
By the time all Soviet planes get to the venue, the Chinese Air Force is almost nothing left. The Japanese are in full control of the air. November 21, 1927 for the first sortie went seven Soviet-16. We confront them twenty of the latest Japanese aircraft. Russian won the battle without losses, but managed to shoot down two Japanese A5M and one bomber. The next day was hit by another Japanese fighter. At relatively similar performance in the Soviet spacecraft more powerful weapons were found.
volunteer pilots in China. From left to right: F. Polynin, PV lever AG Ritov, Blagoveshchenskii | Photo: Live Journal.
November 24 the Japanese took revenge and shot down three Soviet-16. Russian quickly mastered the tactics of warfare, and soon began to surpass the Japanese in skill dives and turns. According Novate.ru, December 1, Soviet pilots managed to shoot down four Japanese fighters and bombers as much as ten. In this battle, the two I-16 crashed, but fortunately, the pilots managed to eject and landed in the rice fields. Fighter I-16 with the identification marks of the Republic of China Air Force | Photo: VikiChtenie.
At the end of the year the Soviet bombers attacked Japanese air base in Shanghai and destroyed about thirty fighter biplanes. February 23, 1938 a squadron of twenty-eight Security Council made the legendary raid on a Japanese air base in Taiwan. All were dropped about two thousand bombs and destroyed forty brand new Italian bombers "Fiat BR.20".
In the spring of 1938 the Japanese and Soviet fighters became intends to ram each other, which had never practiced. The first ram makes a Soviet pilot Schuster in battle on 29 April. Both pilots were killed in a severe frontal collision. In May of the same year a successful ramming Japanese fighter made a Soviet ace Hubenko. Later for this act, he was awarded the Gold Star of the Hero. July 18 the first attempt made Japanese kamikaze A5M. Fighter rammed previously raked them Soviet fighter. The Japanese pilot was killed, and the Soviet pilot managed to survive and even to plant a damaged I-16.
Takidziro Onishi - the "father of the kamikaze." | Photo: OFFICEPLANKTON.
These incidents are strongly interested in the future of the legendary organizer of the raid on Pearl Harbor Takidziro Onishi, which in the future will be called "the father of the kamikaze." Later, the Japanese described these events in his memoirs. It Onishi in 1944 founded the first squadron of the suicide pilots, but few people know that this act was inspired by the names of Soviet pilots.