Gem: the names and types
No modern woman shall not stand before the beauty and brilliance of gemstones. Many esoteric astrologers ascribe to them medicinal and magical properties. All names of gemstones knows not everyone, because there are many. And to distinguish the genuine from the fake mineral is quite difficult. Well, let's examine what are the precious stones, semi-precious gems names, their classification and characteristics.
Evolution gems studies
Each Dictionary gives the notion of precious stones. Their names are very noble and attractive. After polishing, faceting, and they have a very attractive appearance. Once the gems will acquire the appropriate type, the price increases at times, they are used in the manufacture of jewelry.
Precious stones - are minerals (natural chemicals). They have a crystalline structure and a specific composition. In nature, we found more than 4000 of these minerals. But not all of them precious. Expensive natural crystal is the one that has special beauty and strength suitable for jewelry. Such crystals may be colorless, self-colored, glossy and matte. They create a wonderful play of light and shadows on their faces, striking optical effects.
Gems encrusted jewelry, create a collection of them is used as a bank's assets. gemology science has been studying the characteristics and types of precious crystals. Today, you can find a lot of minerals obtained by artificial means, - synthetic. Zircon, phianites, crystal glass mimic expensive diamonds. There are both natural and synthetic sapphires, moissanite, spinel. Our ancestors attributed magical powers to natural crystals. Even ancient people tried to classify them. List the names of precious stones and semi-precious minerals found in a handwritten essay Theophrastus' On the rocks ", issued in 315 BC. In a kind of encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, lapidary, describe therapeutic and mystical properties of precious stones.
To date science classified 2400 precious stones (inorganic compounds with a crystalline structure). Jewelers are also used in organic materials: amber, pearls, agate, coral.
Signs of precious stones
Precious crystal is considered only when has certain characteristics:
- Beauty. Expensive stone after appropriate treatment because the play of light that you can not tear his eyes. Jeweler same must not only come up with a facet, but also to see the beautiful side of the mineral homely.
- The wear resistance. Any mineral destroyed by time. An important quality of an expensive gem is the ability to maintain the beauty under the right conditions.
- rarity. rare stones cost always much higher.
- traditional uses. Natural crystals are selected more frequently than synthetic. Everyone wants to be decorations made of natural stones.
Focusing on the above criteria, only 100 minerals today are precious gems. And in jewelry has become widespread and even less - only twenty. Classification of precious crystals are constantly changing, because it opens new fields, minerals, and volatile fashion and customer priorities. Sometimes some minerals move from jewels in semi-precious group and vice versa.
Classification expensive minerals
We bring you the classification of precious minerals W. J. Kievlenko. According to her, the stones may be precious, gemstones and semiprecious. Each group has its own gradation (order), the value of mineral depends on it. We suggest you consider this classification and understand what minerals belong to one group or another. All gems are divided into four orders:
- The first order includes ruby, blue sapphire, diamond, emerald.
- the second order Stones: opal black, purple, orange and yellow sapphire, noble jade, alexandrite.
- In the third order red tourmaline, rhodolite, moonstone, topaz, aquamarine, opal white, spinel, beryl.
- The fourth order relates citrine, spodumene, garnet, amethyst and turquoise, chrysoprase, zircon, beryl, pink, green, and blue tourmaline.
Jewelry and precious stones are of two orders of magnitude. Meet with these stones:
- aventurine, malachite, lapis lazuli, jade, jade, crystal, amber, Bloodstone, rauchtopaz.
- Common opal, labrador, jet, colored chalcedony, rose quartz, heliotrope, obsidian.
are precious stones jasper, granite, marble onyx, fossilized wood, obsidian, jet, fluorite, selenite.
The names of the red gems
At the mention of red gems, many immediately think of rubies. Jewelers widely use this stunning beauty mineral. It's suitable for inlays of gold, platinum, silver jewelry. ruby inlaid jewelry valued very highly. Rubin has magical and healing properties. He is considered a symbol of love, passion and desire.
To red expensive gems include tourmaline and red spinel. Semi-precious red stones: carnelian, coral, zircon, garnet. The most expensive precious stones include jasper red.
The names of the yellow precious stones
It is believed that yellow crystals calm, give the charge of spiritual vitality, relieve depression. Yellow stones can have a lemon yellow-orange, golden hue. Yellow diamond - one of the most common precious minerals of the shade. The most famous yellow diamond - "Sancy". Magnificent stone teardrop shape and weighs just over 11 grams.
Just behind the diamond is yellow sapphire. Everyone is used to the blue sapphire, but the yellow gem is also very unusual, it has a cognac shade.
Relatively inexpensive stone - yellow topaz. He still recalls the smoky quartz or citrine. The fact that the topaz during the heat treatment can change color. Experts, using this feature, are not only yellow, but also pink, green stone.
Rarer stones are yellow tourmaline. It is also called dravite. It can be either light yellow or slightly brownish.
A variety of quartz is citrine yellow. This color he received due to the presence of iron ions in it. Citrine can be either a light lemon and rich orange. Sometimes there are dark orange samples.
Absolutely transparent crystal with a strong diamond luster is yellow zircon. Sometimes it has a reddish yellow color modulations.
Pleasant dark yellow tint has geliodor. This word is translated from the Greek sounds like a "gift of the sun". Visually this looks like a yellow crystal topaz, quartz or citrine. Sometimes heliodor has a golden hue. Also refers to the yellow gems apatite, agate, sphalerite, amber.
We continue to list the names of expensive crystal pink gemstone. Very gentle pink gem is considered kunzite. This is a peculiar kind of amethyst. Many young girls dream to get a decoration, this stone inlaid soft pink hue. It emphasizes the girl's youth and charm.
Very rare mineral is considered pink beryl and morganite. Most often in jewelry it is combined with diamonds.
Among the best crystals should be noted rubellite or pink tourmaline. He looks like a ruby, but more transparent and less saturated colors.
Semi-precious pink gems: agate, quartz, corundum. Jasper, coral, rhodochrosite, rhodonite are precious stones.
The features and names of black stones
Many minerals nature has endowed black. Some of them are very rare, while others - more common. We offer you a list of black precious stones names:
- Carbonado (black diamond). Very rare and valuable crystal. In the manufacture of jewelry do not use it, because it is poorly cut and processed.
- Black Sapphire - an artificial stone. He is not quite black, and has a light blue.
- Black Pearl. It is characterized by soft iridescent nacre. Black pearls have a fairly high price.
- Black Opal - very expensive and valuable gem.
- Black Spinel - fragile inexpensive mineral. It is often used needlewoman.
- Morion or black quartz. It refers to the semi-precious stones. Because it makes jewelry.
- Black Agate (pictured). The synthetic mineral is dark charcoal color.
There is also a black gemstones crystals include onyx, jasper, jet, hypersthene, mudstone.
Description of the white precious stones
The most expensive and precious stones jewelry art are clear or white on the nature of the crystals. Of course, the first in the list of brilliant gems including diamonds or diamond. He is today the most demanded. Deposits of this mineral in the earth there are not too many, so its value is high. And not all diamonds are suitable for polishing.
Quite expensive stone is white spinel. This gem is very clean, without impurities. White spinel used for the manufacture of luxury jewelry.
Almost indistinguishable from diamond transparent topaz. They are encrusted with gold and platinum. Also on the diamond like Goshen and colorless beryl. Once these crystals are more discreet and cheap.
Always captivated his tenderness and warmth white pearls. It is important to note that the nature of pearls has an elongated irregular shape. It is a pity that the pearls can not be happy with their beauty forever, because the life expectancy of this mineral - up to 300 years.
Highly regarded as jewelery stone tourmaline having presumably volcanic origin. The most valuable in this group is considered to be white stones tourmaline or ahroit. This is a rare crystal, used by some artists. However, all attractive external characteristics he stripped and valued solely because of their rarity.
Let us turn to the list of green gems names. Emerald - the most famous of them. The mineral itself (neat) is not so beautiful, it needs high-quality cutting, to become the king of green crystals. Emeralds are framed in gold, platinum. The cost of the green gem is very high. green garnet value at the level of the royal diamond. From emeralds he has a more grassy flavor. The collection also includes a green stone tourmaline and green sapphire. For hand-made works using malachite, jade, jasper.
Blue and blue gems
At least three names are blue gems are familiar to all - sapphire, topaz and lapis lazuli. Most often they are surrounded with yellow gold. It is believed that lazurite has strong therapeutic and protective properties.
A semi-precious mineral blue - turquoise. It may be slightly green or blue tint.
To maroon jewels include a dark ruby. This is followed by a cherry-colored tourmaline. Semiprecious garnet can also be dark burgundy color. Deep red - the most common shade of garnet. Bracelets, earrings, brooches with burgundy crystals look simply luxurious. Even small ornaments with a dark red gem make women queens and men - kings.