What was the child labor 100-200 years ago
Nineteenth and early twentieth century, seem to be the time the ensuing civilization. Women everywhere have started to give education. Children of rural and poor urban families recognized trainees. Scientific and technological progress is increasingly linked people together. But, alas, in terms of humanity during this period actually left much to be desired. In the first place, because of the attitude to child labor.
A huge number of miners, children of both sexes to work in England and the United States in the nineteenth century. The working day lasted half a day. Despite attempts to impose restrictions on age (in England have established lower the bar in ten years), parents bring their children to work in the same mine where worked hard themselves, with six to eight years: miners, especially women and children, were paid so little that every penny in families was counted. Control asked formally age, no one checked anything. Mines needed manpower.
Do not think that children engaged in mine something like sweeping or other light work. They were selected in a trolley that ran behind him, like donkeys or ox fallen from coal trolleys adults, or just drove coal trucks that filled the adults; raising the basket, graded coal. The most feeble Trolleys joined up to open the gate. Usually it was a little girl. They sat for hours in the darkness, in the damp, still, and it is bad for their health and the more psychological state.
Child chimney sweeps
Little helpers sweeps were very popular in Europe, running a child in the chimney, chimney sweep sought a much better effect than if he was trying to clear everything with the help of special equipment. In addition, children were much less expensive equipment.
A career little chimney sweeps began four years it was believed that there is nothing complicated about soot otskrebanii for a child there, and a little age means the small size and to ensure that the child will not have to change quite a few more years. To crumb-mate stayed longer suitable for zalezaniya in chimneys, he was fed very poorly - if only the legs are not stretched. Skinny boy - a good boy, when it comes to cleaning the pipes.
Run child into the pipe from the bottom of the fireplace, and get out in the end he was on top, on the roof. But the children were afraid to crawl between the steep walls so high up - was a serious risk to break and become a cripple, falling back into the fire, so that the adult host chimneysweep customized baby, spreading under it a little spark.
Occupational risks were for children in this business are very high. They, moreover, that the frustrated, and still panting, and stuck. Soot and smoke, which for years was layered on their skin (wash children could just before the holidays, to avoid wasting the master's coal for heating water and soap), led to severe cancer, most often - lung cancer and scrotum. Even change jobs, small chimney sweeps do not heal the world. Their health was hopelessly undermined. Declining chimney sweeps exploitation of children went only in the last third of the nineteenth century.
Girls in large cities are often tailored to the street trade. It could be a small family business, but most of the girls were working on someone else's uncle, in the morning to get the goods in the evening - handing over the proceeds. The most active time of the sale have been hours before the start of all sorts of clerks and employees, and hours after the end, so to make the rescue, the girl got up at five o'clock, collected and, without breakfast often, a few hours wandering through the streets with a heavy basket or tray ( he wears around his neck, and presented himself as something like a flat box open on the belt, which was decomposed product).
Girls are often robbed, because the run, for every bully, seized goods with the tray, they could not; stolen cost is deducted from their earnings. Colds due to the constant walking down the street in any weather (often without the possibility of normal wear) was commonplace until the inflammation of the lungs and the development of rheumatic fever. When the girl tried to stay on the street in the evening in order to increase revenue, she was exposed to the risk of abuse: in the evening a lot of men looking for what is considered amorous adventures, although the word "love" their actions are quite difficult to identify.
In the late nineteenth - early twentieth centuries, popular among the boys was the work of newspaper seller. All the same: get up very early in the morning, pick up the newspaper in the evening generate revenue. For spoiled or stolen goods you are fined. Sizzling trading hours - morning when Sir buying a newspaper on the way to the service or lackeys - back home from shopping for the hosts.
To trade was brisk, it is necessary to spend hours running around in the streets, including - running across the bustling pavement horse traffic, and loud voice tearing, screaming. In addition, the constant skin contact with lead, which ottiskivali on sheets of newspaper letters, skin problems begin. But this work is still considered to be much safer than the miners and chimney - and even more so than in a factory.
Messenger to get the boy was a great luck. The whole day, in any weather, I had to run, at times with a heavy load, but in between "flights" could sit quietly in the warmth. In addition, at some point the big companies began to give the messenger a beautiful shape. It is true that in winter it is not very warmed. The biggest trouble courier boy was bullying attacks his less fortunate peers who might envy try to break away and envelopes, paper, or take in their favor products from the store, which was carrying a messenger client.
in the factories Children
With the industrialization of society there is a great need in the hands of the workers in the factories. Above all the manufacturers appreciated the work of women - they quickly learned, they were neater and more obedient than men, and also on the well-established customs of the women paid less for the same amount of labor. But the children had to pay even less, so many factories near the machines were benches and on the benches - the boys and girls from six years of age and older.
The children were the perfect consumable. Trained quickly, they did not dare talk back, have cost a penny, and how often maimed or small workers, always find someone to occupy the empty space. But accidents in factories went flow. Girls could tighten hair machine - it straighten and correct the sprawling hairdo was once, for every extra movement to the same beat is sick. From malnutrition and lack of sleep, many kids lost their vigilance, and with it - a hand, a leg or your life. Treatment, of course, is not paid. Small worker kicked out on the street.
This attitude towards children in factories was ubiquitous - in Russia, Europe and America. Humanists and progressives fought for years for something to improve the conditions of child labor, and to no avail. Benefits outweigh any arguments and efforts. We went to the course and psychological tricks. When the humanists tried to ban the use of child labor in the factories producing silk - to unwind silkworm cocoon, required hand put it in very hot water, almost boiling water, and hands in children mutilated - manufacturers spread the rumor that the silk (and taxes on plants) did not It will do, because only gentle children's fingers can do the delicate thin thread.
Very popular legend that the best tea in China was regarded as the tea, which is assembled by young virgins. After making their purity and taste of tea leaves particularly clean! Indeed, the young virgin (from five to six years) in many countries have worked to harvest something easier potatoes or rutabagas. Only purity of absolutely nothing to do with it - the work of little girls is literally cost pennies. Together with the young virgins tea and tobacco were harvested as young virgins of the same age range, pregnant women and the elderly are able to move more.
The use of child labor in the fields and plantations around the world considered the norm. The working day, regardless of the weather, lasted about twelve hours, with a break for food (during which workers often just fall asleep, can not even chew). Children weeding, picking berries and other relatively light fruit and leaves, destroying pests, running around with watering cans and buckets to water the endless beds. Maimed in fields less than in the factories - mostly stripped back, or "straining stomach" (a common problem of girls). No surprise as heat and sunstroke, and burns, aching bones and bronchitis due to long work in bad weather.
Attach the child to the kitchen to wash the dishes, even for free, or only on holidays payments, many parents thought of happiness. To begin with, the child will no longer ask for food - after all, in the house and in the pub, he is able to eat leftovers. Some of the children in a new place of work and spent the night, the more that scour cauldrons, pots and pans have often late.
The only drawback was the need to work dishwasher constantly pull of gravity - pelvis with water or the same boiler. In addition, not all the children tolerated the constant heat and fumes in the kitchen. If fainted once - you still forgive, but after the second time farewell, satisfying place.