Submachine gun "Cedar", "Scorpio". Submachine guns Sudaeva, Shpagin, Thompson. Description, photos

During the First World War, it became clear that the infantry in need of such weapons, which can significantly increase its firepower. To solve this problem could only be equipping the troops with automatic weapons, which at that time had great success due to the rate of fire. Then the troops were such formidable machines, as machine guns. Of course, they are very effective, but if possessed similar parameters and individual weapons, firepower would rise significantly.

new weapons concept

The first attempt to solve this problem resulted in the development of many rifles. But until the mid-1930s, this initiative is very few people interested in the best automatic in the sample consisted only partially armed. After automatic rifle was still inferior to the usual weight, ease and reliability, as they used all the same powerful rifle cartridges. Possibility of realization more perfect weapon in life appeared in the 1940s and was caused by a number of reasons.

But it was soon created a new weapon, using standard pistol cartridges - PP - submachine gun. Of course, it had a very small distance shooting and could support only rifles shooting at short distances, while increasing the firepower of the unit. About the history and development of the submachine guns, this article will tell, and we will consider some examples of this weapon.

The history and causes of the

Submachine gun as a separate type of weapon arose at a time when rifles and pistols tended to intermediate patterns, that is, those that combine the characteristics of both types of weapons. When the capsule has been circulated ignition principle existed models of pistols or revolvers, which have ladders butts, increases accuracy and firing range of 3-4. Also among the improvements were elongated trunks, traveling sights. Such modifications of the characteristics were similar to the light carbines. Sub-machine guns were the result of long-term work to increase the important indicators such as accuracy, rate of fire and firing range. To solve these problems in different ways - increase cartridge capacity, the introduction of the very modernization of the stock and barrel, alterations in the design of the trigger mechanism. It is a weapon and became a prototype submachine guns.

The birth of the new weapon

It was the first Russian models, based on the design of guns Mauzer 1906 and Borchardt-Luger 1904. But their application was unsuccessful since attended a large spread and impact.

Similar structures have developed and Italians - in 1915 there was Ravelli. This weapon was a heavy (about 6 kg), had a great rate of fire, and it overheats trunk. In fact, it was a twin pistols with a special shield. But such weapons have recognized ineffective in conditions of trench warfare.

The first successful development of

One of the first successful submachine gun designs was the German Bergmann 1918. He has not been extensively tested in the war, because it is over, but its design is largely influenced the development of this type of weapon and widely copied in many of its models. In this case, it was made mostly technological changes, leaving the old structure.

And in 1921, in America there was a kind unique weapon - a Thompson submachine gun. It was designed by one of the generals of the US army. Initially this gun was rejected by the leadership of the troops, but it has found its application in the criminal world. Its high performance is very like gangsters. Some time later, the same weapons were equipped with police. The concept of sub-machine gun endured many changes, among them was this idea as standard equipment special mechanisms of rifles that could shoot. These devices are turned in the rifle and rapid-firing pistol cartridge weapons. But the idea found little support, due to the fact that large had the opportunity to release the loss, since it had to be removed. Also, there were problems with the equipment of soldiers two types of cartridges that had to be worn.

Assault Rifles in Russia

In Russia, the first samples of submachine guns begin to appear then (in 1925) when being actively reform the Soviet army weapons. The increasing militarization of the required new weapons, it could only be a cheap and practical samples that meet basic requirements put forward the army.

First Steps

The very first such weapons was a sample of FV Tokarev. In his design for the then unusual weapon was used cartridge - Nagant revolver, which influenced the fate of weapons. But submachine gun Tokarev showed quite good results in the tests and could even compete with the German models. Weapons introduced in 1927.

And already in 1929, his submachine gun produced VA Degtyarev. Its development was similar to earlier work constructor (particularly resembled its DP gun). The weapon had a gate structure similar to machine-gun - semifree with side stops, the off to the side, receiver has been arranged as well. A similar structure had a shop for 22 rounds in the form of a disk. Made weapons were chambered for Mauser pistol. Under it, by the way, it makes the most of the then forms - in particular, Korovin system or Tokarev pistol. Generally, originally hoped to use the revolver ammo in these models of weapons, but they have the disadvantage that made it possible to replace them Mauzerovskogo. In addition to these samples, it was proposed and Shpitalniy design, but chose nevertheless to Degtyareva model, which had adopted in 1935.

The new models - new solutions

Soon broke the Great Patriotic War, at the designers added work. Even before it began to adopt the Red Army was adopted submachine gun Shpagin. He mass produced since the beginning of the war, its success contributed to a lot of factors. Firstly, the design was simple in the extreme. Secondly, for the manufacture of needed only simple materials, which enabled him to produce even a small workshop without specialization in the arms business.

In general, the PCA had a great similarity with the model Degtyareva. He had a similar in design fused with the housing receiver of the barrel, the free type valve with handle reloading, sector sight, a wooden box, a guard in front of the trigger guard and the disc magazine. But its production significantly simplifies and speeds up punching. In the photo below you can see the SMG Shpagin (model 1941).

Submachine gun

The role of the submachine guns with the progress of the war has become increasingly clear. In this regard, not only to increase their production, but also launched the production and development of new models and modifications. In particular, the PCA received a new store sector type 35 rounds, greatly simplified sights. Also, due to the prevalence of this type of weapon, not only in the infantry, the new requirements to be reckoned designers were nominated. Needed such weight and compact, which would have kept fighting qualities of weapons. And work took Degtyarev, Shpagin Rukavishnikov, Korovin, Sudan. Among their most successful models were samples Shpagin and Degtyareva, but the tests also showed himself well Sudaeva model. It began to produce in the siege of Leningrad, and soon had adopted as a "submachine gun Sudaeva (model 1943)." He gained the greatest popularity among the troops, as it was light, compact, effective at short distances. Ipolzovat in the tank and landing parts most often considered to be one of the best submachine guns of World War II. In the photo below is submachine gun Sudaeva (model 1943).

Submachine gun

The postwar developments

Intensive development work was carried out and after the Second World War, in particular, can be distinguished models such as the Kalashnikov (mod. 1947) and Simon. But in the future there are demands which could no longer meet the weapon with pistol cartridges. Therefore, studies for sub-machine guns were temporarily discontinued. The idea to go back to them appeared in the 1960s, when the market became popular US models such as the M10-M11 "Ingram" and Czechoslovakian machine pistol "Scorpio" Vz61. The Russian army leadership, impressed by these weapons, ordered to develop a special weapon for the sabotage units.

Development of a new model of Russian submachine gun

The weapon was designed under the cartridge 9 mm PM. Provided was the installation of a silencer, a sight designed for shooting up to 200 m are two models took part in the competition -. Afanasyev and Dragunov. Then submachine gun Dragunov though was better but did not have sufficient precision shooting, works were stopped. However, an improved model Degtyareva there was a demand in the early '90s, when the country was dominated by crime and organized crime. Since 1993, it modified model called "Cedar" begins to be released on the orders of law enforcement officers. They were interested in a small weapon with a complete set for domestic socket. Submachine gun "Cedar" was tested in TSNIITOCHMASH, then adopted by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and special forces.

Some well-known and successful examples of

Thompson submachine gun

A weapon that you can see in the photo below, developed by American John Thompson.

Submachine gun

This gun can say a lot of good. He is to this day remains a popular shooting no more than 50 meters. But sub-machine gun is very heavy - 5 kg without magazine, while the fully equipped shop at 100 rounds weighs about 4 kg. Therefore, these weapons can not be called easy. Giving, oddly enough, is virtually nonexistent. He was famous for the submachine gun in gangster disassembly. Later came a few modifications that have been adopted by the US Army. To date, the company produces model Numrich.

SMG ' Scorpio '

Submachine gun

A in the Czech Republic for special forces and support staff - signalers, drivers, artillery calculations. Features of arms is Browning cartridge 7, 65 mm, concealable also possible, using a silencer and low recoil. This allows control of the weapon effectively. Among the shortcomings - the small stopping power and to be penetrated. Nevertheless, it is widely sold in any country that wish to. Used by terrorists to carry out terrorist attacks in the 70-80-ies.

Submachine gun "Cedar"

Submachine gun

A chambered for 9x18 mm PM. A distinctive feature of the weapon - a modular design that allows for disassembly without tools. We can distinguish the following modules: receiver, shop shutter return spring, trigger mechanism. Has good accuracy of fire, the possibility of concealed carry, the use of silencers, designator, compact and easy to use. These qualities have allowed to take it on board the Interior Ministry.

Machine Guns (photo)

  • Air Pistol gun UZI Israeli design.
Submachine gun
  • Submachine Gun "Knight", used in special units of the Russian Federation.
Submachine gun

The article will tell you about the origin of the first submachine guns, the development of the concept of these weapons, as well as the most successful patterns - foreign and domestic. We hope the information was useful to you.