Gun PM (Makarov) pneumatic: specifications and photos
During World War II, it became clear that the private short arms - a necessity. At that time, soldiers used and domestic models, and trophy. Of course, they had a lot of shortcomings, but no choice. Various features pistols still gave a small range. Only in 1951 came the legendary Makarov pistol - PM. Next will be a description of the weapon. Also, the following describes the history creation and features possessed PM pistol. Specifications also not be ignored.
What was the reason for the introduction of a new gun? Of course, the negative qualities of the predecessor. On the Soviet Army was a TT pistol. However, the staff has a weak weapon lethal force. Cartridges which equips gun inferior German (9 mm) as used in the "pistol" and "Walter". Most TT pistol length was also a negative side. But most importantly - the lack of adequate safety mechanism does not give the possibility of constant carrying of weapons. Simple trigger mechanism was designed on a single action. Insecurity repelled all, as to remove the gun from the guard could accidentally.
At the same time the German model had a dual mechanism of action that reduces the chance of getting an almost zero. Interestingly, the more perfect the fuse system does not interfere with the shot. It was necessary to take a new sample into service. Unfortunately, in war conditions it was difficult, so the next gun, PM, was adopted after the war. Incidentally, the Germans also did not like the usual guns, they preferred submachine guns. The first was used only when absolutely necessary, such as when the run out of ammo. During a fairly long-term use were developed by TT requirements that must comply with the new model and the concept of its use. Therefore we can say that the PM pistol could only come about through the CT.
On the shelves you can find not only traumatic weapons. Pistol "Makarov" (PM) air are also quite popular. But not all so simple. If a traumatic PM-T is a leading, among the air can not distinguish a clear leader.
IZhmeh Baikal MP-654K made based on IL-71, which relates to a PM-shaped. He is sturdy and reliable, the characteristics and appearance as much as possible like a gun battle. This is what distinguishes it from other models. Shooting can be carried out and with the hammer cocked and the DA mode, as in the original.
It is for this similarity with martial air pistol (PM) has become popular in Russia. It is interesting that this quality on it is possible to develop skills, how to deal with this PM. The descent of the model very tight, which can not be attributed to the shortcomings and advantages, as it ensures that no accidental shot, and at the same time prevents fire. Bullet velocity filter also encouraged, initially it is about 115 m / s. Despite some shortcomings, which can be removed or used to them, IZhmeh Baikal MP-654K is the best pneumatic PM in Russia.
One of the first production models was PM in 1949 release. He had some distinctive features, such as curly frame ledge to the right of the trigger guard and a shop with an oblique projection that was needed to turn the slide stop. It was inconclusive sample.
the gun demands were as follows:
- The new weapon should have small dimensions, which makes it easier to use on small distances. The mass is also worth making a little for the same reason.
- The trigger mechanism should work without cocking the hammer on which spent a lot of time.
- A large destructive power of the bullet that is needed to fight. And the greatest safety when using and operating reliability under various combat and weather conditions.
Two versions of
For the competition to create the gun had to push really good idea. Makarov, the designer of the same name pistol, initially created two sample (variant). One of them suggested the use of the cartridge 7, 65 mm Browning. This made it possible to minimize the weight and size. In the second variant it was to be used by domestic and more powerful 9x18. And the choice fell on him. Today, there is an air pistol PM, created much later on the basis of combat. A lot of companies related to pneumatics, have included it in their production. There is also a traumatic gun MP, more written about them below.
9x18 cartridge designed engineer Semin before the Second World War. The prototype served as a German 9 mm Ultra, which was designed by one of the German companies. Oddly enough, the two cartridge can not replace each other, the domestic sample had a diameter of 9 2. The popularity of the Soviet cartridge can be explained by the fact that at high destructive power he was able to be used in a weapon with a free gate. Although 9x18 had smaller, compared to 7, 62x25, standing on the arms, the initial velocity, as well as energy bullets, it had a great stopping power. PM pistol (photos) can be seen below.
The model is made of a light alloy. A gas cylinder mounted in the handle. Weight of standard cans, '12 Model is one of the most popular in Russia. Unlike the original POU can be called a slightly different design of the store, due to the appearance of the container. Driving disassembly not be fully copied, however, is quite similar to the combat. There is a possibility of shooting, and the DA mode, and with a cocked hammer, which is also a big plus. These functions are also available on the combat PM.
The main advantage can be called soft and predictable descent, which is convenient for everybody. Good precision and accuracy of shots are also a great advantage. At a distance of 3 meters scatter about 10 mm. This model is advised to purchase those for whom there is no difference, it is similar to the original or not. Also on Makarov Umarex should pay attention to beginners.
Many well-known designers put forward their ideas for a new pistol. For example, Tokarev, Rakova, Vojvodina and many others. Also in the competition was attended by the foreign system. Many tests were carried out with pistols. In addition to shooting, there were others. For example, one of the most severe - putting weapons into the pit with sand and water. Pistol "Makarov" has shown amazing results, beating other species. However, the designer advised to make minor changes, after which the weapon was accepted into service in 1951. And in 1949 the start of production was put on the Izhevsk plant.
Further development and improvement of the gun were all the time, one of the areas has been dismantling PM pistol. Set up various options were tested, as well as testing of the technology. In this case, it should be noted the above-described plant designers who have made a huge contribution to the improvement of the samples. We take into account the wishes of the military who were directly involved in the tests. Ultimately, the latest version of PM different from the first, and internally and externally. But everything changes bore a positive character and only improved weapons. This is confirmed by the use of weapons in the army and police forces. Reliability and simplicity - the principles that adhere to the designers involved in the revision. PM pistol (photos) can be seen below.
Makarov, as he himself said, created his gun days. It was made and modified much larger number of samples than the other contenders. Makarov selected automatic operation circuit using recoil blowback. PM gun assembly was easy. The designer has developed a weapon that is fully in line with the wishes of the military, as described above. To sum up, Makarov, an improved mechanism, used in the German "Walter", which greatly improved the quality of the PM. Areas in which the designer was going, can be summarized as follows:
- to simplify the design and facilitation of work with a weapon;
- functionality of the gun and components;
- increased reliability;
- increase the strength of parts, and thus the gun in whole;
- adaptability required for mass production.
It should be noted that the last direction was necessary. For the production of a large number of copies of the weapons it had to be possible to mechanize the work. It is not enough for most models. The return spring, which was used in the gun PM, namely around the trunk, to make it possible the device compact and lightweight when compared to those models, where it was under the barrel.
Besides all the positive qualities, a Makarov pistol (PM) has the reliability in terms of security. Anyone who uses a weapon, not fear about a shot. The trigger mechanism (USM) hammer type, double action, has an automatic staging of the safety, reduces the risk of accidental discharge. It also has a new, at the time the gun, simplified system design and operation, which provides ease of use and maintenance. USM also much more durable when compared with earlier models of weapons of this type. Gain that is required for making a shot in Single Action mode - 2 kg. When shooting is samovzvodom - 4, 5 kg. And to the left of the frame arm is responsible for the slide stop.
The reliability in the use of
But what is the reason for the popularity? Undoubtedly, one of the distinguishing characteristics of such weapons, like a pistol "Makarov" (TM), is its reliability. It has been proven not only in the many tests carried out during the creation and improvement, but also on the battlefield. The actual fighting, in which participated the pistol "Makarov" (PM), were carried out in Afghanistan and Chechnya. In many other countries, where they were, and there are small skirmishes and local wars, weapons and some great shows. In self-defense air gun is simply irreplaceable.
A plurality of structural innovations were used in the PM. Fuse - one of them, it is on the left of the shutter-casing and a lever, in the switched position blocks the sear. The peculiarity is that in this case the trigger does not touch the firing pin. This is certainly a plus. Sam fuse used on the PM, unlike the weapon is completely original, created by Makarov. If a large part of the gun is designed based on "Walter", the device is new. The most important difference may be called something that German arms the fuse box to be moved up, while the PM - the natural movement performed by the thumb. With this rate of fire is quite large.
sight is mounted on the PM pistol combat and other species - immovable front sight and rear sight, which is attached to the groove. The latter is a classic "dovetail", used in a large number of small arms. It is also possible the introduction side of edits, which, of course, goes to plus gun. A latch is located on the bottom of the store, it is also quite convenient, as the latter can move freely between the other arm. Sam pistol "Makarov" (PM) consists of only 32 parts, allowing rapid assembly and disassembly of weapons, therefore, and cleaning.
It is necessary to designate the rest, after we learned what the PM pistol, specifications. Accuracy - this is one of the main qualities of any weapon. To understand the best make out the example. When firing at 25 meters radius bullet dispersion is only 75 mm. 10 m - 35 mm. 50 m - 160 mm. This excellent performance for the pistol of those times.
If you take the view that all genius is simple, PM pistol is a truly magnificent invention. Its functionality - another reason for the popularity. Makarov changed and simplified the design of "Walter", in the end turned out a weapon that surpasses it in all respects. Also, PM has been easier just to produce because of the simplicity of construction.
Model other less resembles the original Makarov pistol. Quality assembly is combined with the negative aspects of design - namely, with a compound housing screws. The trigger mechanism is not strong. However, Battle value better than any other model. Starting filter bullet velocity of 130 m / s, full length store. But due to improper descent there is the likelihood of habit. Retrained for another model would be extremely difficult. But many choose exactly it.
Of course, thanks to the huge number of advantages of the PM has been popular in many countries. It was used not only to Soviet officials, but also in the Warsaw Pact countries, friendly countries of the USSR, and later around the world. Makarov pistol has been estimated anywhere. Reliable performance in all weather conditions, you can use it even in areas with very different compared with the nature of the Soviet Union, the climate. Even in the humid equatorial forests and arid parts of Asia the PM showed his best side. The gun became popular all models in the world, including various kinds of US weapons. However, in the 80 years it has expired, as have certain drawbacks. Pneumatic PM also is one of the best.
Like any weapon, the PM was not ideal. In use, its shortcomings have been identified. For example, one of the most obvious may be mentioned small bullet stopping power, low capacitance and store the narrow arm, which did not allow full contact with the gun hand. It is because of the last minus those who do not have the circulation of small arms and experience of the PM in particular, show poor results. By the need to get used to be enough for the PM. This applies to all PM-shaped models and in particular a pneumatic gun. Manually operated safety lever although it has a fairly comfortable position, nevertheless it became obsolete in 80 years. Also worth noting is that when stortom Burnished (assuming lateral light) appears on the reflection of the fly, which is easily mistaken for the absence of its parts. This leads to poor shooting as bullets do not fall on the center and on the side. But considering all the disadvantages, of which there were many, the PM has become popular thanks to its simplicity and functionality. It is also necessary to consider that in actual combat conditions, personal weapons almost never used, it was not significant and decisive. Therefore, all the disadvantages described above, in most cases, do not even notice.
How to tell the soldiers, even when the gun and his hands in the dirt, and cleaning was not for quite some time, save lives PM fighters and foreign gun would misfire. Of course, the simplicity of weapons should not be overestimated, but if it does not work, then it most likely was due to negligent handling.
In the late 1980s, as has been said, the PM is outdated. What was needed was a gun, a frugal and simple but has great performance when shooting. Therefore, work began on the contest "Grach". But the creation of new weapons was possible only after a while. Replacement became PMM (Makarov pistol upgraded). Overall it was the same weapon, chambered for 9x18 only PMM, which was reinforced by the powder charge and bullet facilitated having a steel core. However, all were carried out minor changes, namely the simplified form of the housing-bolt and magazine capacity. In general, to what extent shortcomings PM corrected. Martial temporary sample quality parameters exceed the predecessor, but inferior to the new west model.
At the competition won the PM. However, due to lack of funds, it is not produced even today. A PMM was not large enough use to be able to talk about a complete or nearly complete replacement. Thus, we now use the same Makarov pistol, in spite of all its shortcomings, it is one of the best types of service weapons. Compact and easy to use the PM it is popular today.
In Russia banned the use of military weapons. However, some other types are allowed to self-defense. For example, a traumatic gun MP is one of the most popular models on the Russian shelves. It has good performance, that make him choose. A distinctive aspect is that the PM-T (which is the name of the host is a traumatic pistol PM) was created from the old "Makarov", it certainly is a huge plus. For obvious reasons, a gun and picked up all the shortcomings of the PM.
The majority owners complain about the complicated reloading weapons. This is certainly true, but there are also pluses. Hard latch allows you to not worry about the fact that the store can fall. This can not be said about other models of traumatic PM, in which instead of the classic latch used easily prozhimaemaya button. If you start from the fact that the PM-T was created from a service pistol, the question arises: what cartridges should I use?
Designed for the more powerful pistol Makarov can come into disrepair when applying traumatic rounds as probable unavailability or recharge it difficult. Therefore, most often in the PM simply replace the return spring. You can then use standard sports, training, and even Turkish SMERSH cartridges. Thus, it is possible to identify the pros and cons. Among the former are excellent quality and simplicity gun. The second group may include a low complexity cartridges described above. And it should be difficult to get used to recharge. However, there is also a pneumatic pistol "Makarov", PM-shaped species of large amounts.
Further samples as described above, and other popular. Gas pistol IZH-79-8 PM is leading among this type PM-shaped. The design is as close to the original, which is the main positive aspect. Details, which occurs as a result of the pressure of the shot, made of steel, which increases the service. The thin molded into the barrel sleeve, in order to enhance the gas pressure. Also, everything is aimed to ensure that the model was not possible to alter in combat - namely, the weakened parts of the gun, the sleeve prevents the use of ammunition. Caliber -. 8 mm, range shot aerosol cloud is about 3 meters Good performance can not fail to please the users.
It was the last type of PM-shaped. In addition to traumatic, pneumatic and gas, popular PM-gun signal, namely, model MP-371. It is completely safe to use. Shot is due to blast caps, which are 8 pieces in the store, this is accompanied by a distinctive sound. They mimic the cartridges, but they are not. Caliber model - 9 mm, weight - 730 AD But where you can use a flare gun? For example, for special effects or to attract attention. It is also often used for repelling wild animals, but the fighting qualities of the end in this.
PM pistol is a popular weapon in the world. In addition to fighting, it is widely used by other types. Makarov pistol (PM) air has many advantages, chief among them - the reliability and ruggedness. They also observed in other PM-shaped models. Easy to use, which is not at all small arms are also attractive. However, there are some disadvantages, which do not allow to effectively apply the PM in combat. Nevertheless, law enforcement services and in self-defense is indispensable PM pistol. Characteristics of its high.