The history of skiing: features, stages and interesting facts
Skiing - thing that came into being during the time of the Stone Age. It's hard to believe, but the cave paintings of primitive tribes tell us that people in the past have used this tool to quickly get from one point to another and to more effectively hunt. However, this can be said to an archaic mode of transport, it takes an entirely different meaning in the end of XIX century - becomes the property of leisure. The history of skiing dates back precisely to this period, and we are now studied in detail.
Background inception skiing
A kind of modern skis and snowboards appeared among all the known history of the ancient peoples who lived in harsh weather conditions - that is, in the snow-covered areas of the world. Here are our ancestors - the inhabitants of the present territory of Russia, the natives of North America and the Highlanders.
In 960 Norwegian first talked about skiing as an accessory for the training of court officials. By the way, the history of skiing originated in this country, after a few centuries later, the Norwegians made once supporting activities in entertainment.
But this is one of the theories, which is considered the most likely, if not to take into account the fact that similar mention of skiing - or rather, on snowshoes, belong to Russian sources of XII century. Our ancestors, like the Norwegians, used this device for faster movement on snow-covered terrain.
Of course, people could not help but notice that with the help of snowshoes you can and have fun. So it began to emerge the history of skiing in all regions with harsh climates.
Ski & War
Directly history of skiing is not so great - it begins in the middle of the XIX century. But do skiing, as we have already established, there is quite a long time. For a long time they were used only wild northern peoples to be able to overcome long distances faster. And in the 17-18 th centuries, many states have started to use this tool in the military. Norwegian captain Hans Emahuzen the first time in 1733 published a manual on the ski combat training. Soldiers, before going out on the battlefield, competed in competitions such as the biathlon, race, downhill and slalom (modern terminology, at the time of these terms did not exist).
We can say that the history of skiing originates precisely from this moment. Also, it is useful to note that after the first exhibition was organized by the ski equipment. It was held in the city of Trondheim in 1862-63 years.
A few words about the founder of the
Similar to our snowshoes were again the Norwegians. The history of the emergence of skiing in its modern sense has its roots in this country. A founder of this turned out to be a fun person named Sondre Norheim (pictured below). That he has long existed snowshoe installed fasteners that securely fixed leg and allowed to move around them more maneuverable. Skiers at the time realized that using this device, they can not only carefully to travel in a straight line, but to unfold, to make tough races and go around any obstacles. Gradually it turned into entertainment and sports, which began to be engaged everywhere.
His development, namely sport, which has become incredibly popular, Sondre called the slalom, which translated into Russian means "hard track".
Promoting ski Culture
During the second half of the XIX century, people have entered a new era - the information. The media in the form of newspapers immediately ran down any news around the world, and not an exception notorious skiing. The history of its foundation and development, news of exhibitions and events of war - all these huge masses of people hooked, and began "ski fever."
Separately, we note that the winter sport has become popular to the extent that participation in skiing existing at the time the athletes of other categories and trends as soon as possible trying to retrain. People, the most ordinary, who lived in the warm regions of the world, went to the snow area to conquer the white peaks of the mountains.
As popularized skiing in every single corner of the planet
Consider the history of skiing in the world does not need a whole and separately for each country. It is clear that in this range fall only those powers that can boast of a snow-covered mountain ranges. So what are they?
- Norway. In 1877 there was organized the first ski community. By 1883 in the country, in addition to the planned competition, held an annual celebration - Holmenkollenskie game, which was dedicated, as you can guess, skiing. History also briefly describes the types of events that took place in Norway - is combined, cross-country racing and jumping.
- Finland. As in the neighboring country, we are held annual festivals, one of which was "Lahti game." Finns also love to compete and preferred to race on flat terrain.
- Sweden. In short, the history of skiing in this country is almost identical to Norwegian. There is also a massive festival called "Vasaloppet" was organized, and the Swedes during the competitions to overcome obstacles on rough terrain.
- United States. Since we consider the history of skiing in the world, not only in Europe, it is worth mentioning about America. Here skiing was popular not so much, but the inhabitants of the mountain states appreciated this discovery. Americans learned about the sport, of course, from the Scandinavian settlers. Since the States gathered representatives of various European powers, skiing here I have absorbed everything and little by little.
- Japan. In the Land of the Rising Sun went to the Austrian coaches. They taught the locals skiing and its features. It is for this reason that in Japan even at the moment so many skiers.
Congress in Oslo
Officially, the history of skiing in the world was fixed on the paper after the congress 1910 in Oslo. The meeting was attended by representatives of 10 States that have made their individual contribution to the development of winter sports. It is important to emphasize that the International Ski Commission was established during the congress. She dealt with the organization of competitions and setting standards for competition. Subsequently, this organization evolved into the International Ski Federation, and that is how it is called since 1924 to the present.
In our country,
Special attention should be paid to the history of skiing in the development of Russia. In many ways, it coincides with the history of our northern neighbors - the Scandinavians, but there is in it, and something unique. So, the official history of skiing in Russia began December 29, 1895. In Moscow this day the grand opening of "Moscow club skiers" - the first organization that officially dealt with all issues related to winter sports. In parallel, in 1897, was called "North Star" in St. Petersburg - a similar organization, which entered all the fans of the northern capital of skis. Then, for several years in the major cities, then still the Empire, we organized similar clubs that existed autonomously. But in 1910 they were united in the Moscow league lyzhebezhtsev. Under the leadership of the league in the winter in Russia has passed a record number of competitions - 18, in which a total of 100 people took part.
It is interesting to know! February 7, 1910 was held ski race 30 km, which was attended by athletes from Moscow and St. Petersburg. It won gold at the Paul Bychkov - the first winner of the ski run in Russia. The history of skiing development among women in our country continued in 1921, and won the grand prize Natalia Kuznetsova.
The twentieth century and skiing
In 1918, skiing was included in the compulsory program in sports high schools throughout the country. Russian athletes who win at domestic competitions, go to the competition in other countries, which also win gold. Our athlete Zoe Bolotov was the 18-fold champion of the USSR in different ski disciplines (1938-1952). Among men, the strongest appeared Dmitry Vasiliev, who was awarded the title "Honored Master of Sports" and his whole life has gained 16 victories in the national championship.
It can not be left without attention and the unique skier modernity - Raisa Smetanin. She became the leader of the world's elite skiers, moreover, at the Olympic Games in Albertville (1992) won gold at the age of 40 years.
The different types of skiing and the evolution of
Now this winter sport conditionally divided into three groups. They are formed depending on the location, where skiing is in its infancy, and in the history of the period in which it happened. So there was a northerly skiing (or Norwegian), Alpine (or mountain) and modern. The first type of skiing is distributed mainly in the Nordic countries and in Russia. Ski athletes live in Switzerland, France and Austria. As for the representatives of the modern ski arts, they come mainly from the US and Canada.
The founder of this category, as we have said, was the Sondre Norheim. He's picking up skiing military past centuries, upgraded them - namely, to reduce the length from 3 to 2, 4 meters, fixed mount and narrowed middle part of the design. It is allowed to make skiing very maneuverable and comfortable, during which there was a lot of fans of this development.
Norwegian style of skiing included the following subjects:
- Ski Jumping.
- Racing on a cross or flat terrain.
- Biathlon or combination of races with jumps.
It made to believe that the founders of the Alpine type of skiing were British. Wealthy citizens of this misty country regularly went on holiday in the picturesque areas of the Alps, where, in fact, honed skiing skills. Thus was born the alpine disciplines:
- Descent complicated obstacles.
- speed descent.
It is important to note that the Alpine winter sport is not turned on for a long time in the universities of the program, as it is considered a pastime for the elite of society. After World War I it became part of the Olympic program, in fact, athletes who were on skis, not differentiated. At the same time they performed as the Norwegian tricks, and alpine.
A new cross-country skiing
In short, the history of the development of a new type of skiing has absorbed all the most difficult and extreme of Alpine and Norwegian. It happened in the 20 years of the twentieth century in the United States. The Americans have developed extreme winter sports, which are now the most popular. Among the subjects of this new branch are the following:
- Halfpipe and Slopestyle.
- Ski Cross.
These types of descent soon also become part of the official program of skiers, but so far they are used as entertainment EXTREMALS around the world.